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Chemicals and Related Products

Samantha DeCarlo
(202) 205-3165
Samantha.DeCarlo@usitc.gov

  To view changing data, hover over or touch the animated graphic below.

Change in 2017 from 2016:

  • U.S. total exports of chemicals and related products: increased by $9.1 billion (4.2 percent) to $227.3 billion
  • U.S. general imports of chemicals and related products: increased by $8.3 billion (3.2 percent) to $268.1 billion

Total trade in chemicals increased in 2017, with U.S. exports rising slightly faster than U.S. imports.  Increases occurred despite disruptions due to Hurricane Harvey, which hampered many petrochemical production sites in the Gulf Coast region.[1] Growth in the chemicals and related products sector is largely attributable to continued domestic access to cheap and abundant feedstock,[2] which placed U.S. chemical manufacturers in an advantageous position.[3]

The value of U.S. chemicals imports and exports rose due to increases in both price and demand. First, their price rose to reflect recovering crude petroleum prices, which had declined sharply in 2016.[4] As crude petroleum is a feedstock for many chemicals and plastics, the recovery of crude and natural gas prices to values similar to 2015 levels impacted nearly all areas of the U.S. chemicals industry. Some of the most substantial impacts occurred in the petrochemicals and related plastics sectors, as higher crude prices translated into higher prices for the downstream products (and therefore higher trade values). A visual representation of the general relationship of crude petroleum and natural gas to raw materials and everyday products can be seen in figure CH.2.

Figure CH.2: Petrochemicals flowchart:  Click the figure, which will open in a separate webpage.  In the newly opened webpage, click on the circles to expand the general pathways from crude petroleum and natural gas to raw materials.  Upon hovering the mouse over a chemical name, the digest and HTS code(s) associated with the material can be seen.  These are general relationships.  Chemical reactions involve specific conditions and utilize multiple raw materials.   

ts_chemicals_flowchart.png

In addition to price effects, these sectors were also affected by increasing demand. Consumer demand for downstream products made from plastics and petrochemicals was consistently high due to the high durability, low cost, and lightweight nature of plastics materials.[5] Total trade increased in related industries such as downstream miscellaneous plastic products, while domestic exports increased $739 million (2.9 percent) and general imports increased $8.3 billion (3.2 percent). These trends reflected the symbiotic relationship between crude petroleum prices, downstream chemical industries and pricing, and consumer demand for plastic products.

Overall growth in total sector trade mitigated losses in U.S. pharmaceuticals imports and exports.  The pharmaceuticals industry continued to operate under the threat of patent cliffs,[6] stiff competition in innovation and development, corresponding research and development costs, increasing pricing pressures from consumers, growing market share for generic pharmaceuticals and biosimilars globally, and heightened scrutiny by regulators, which have tended to inhibit clinical innovation.[7] The past several years have experienced some stabilization and the introduction of new blockbuster drugs to market, but peak sales per asset continued a long-term decline.[8]

As noted in table CH.1, the markets accounting for the largest increases in U.S. exports in 2017, by value, were China (up $2.2 billion, 15.8 percent), Mexico (up $1.8 billion, 6.1 percent), and Canada (up $1.6 billion, 4.9 percent).  Conversely, the largest increases in imports, by value, came from China (up $3.8 billion, 12.7 percent) and from Ireland and Japan (both up $2.3 billion, or with increases of 12.7 percent and 16 percent, respectively). These increases in both U.S. imports and U.S. exports were able to offset substantial declines in trade with Belgium (imports down $1.0 billion, 20.6 percent; exports down $2.0 billion, 15.3 percent) and the United Kingdom (imports down 2.0 billion, 17.4 percent; exports down $750 million, 10.1 percent).

Table CH.1: Chemicals and related products: U.S. exports and general imports, by selected trading partners, 2013–17

 
Million $
 
Item
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Absolute change,
2016–17
Percent
change,
2016–17
U.S. exports of domestic merchandise:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Canada
36,335
37,130
34,093
32,667
34,266
1,600
4.9
    China
14,242
14,133
13,566
13,793
15,971
2,178
15.8
    Mexico
31,705
33,475
31,542
30,102
31,937
1,835
6.1
    Ireland
2,439
2,753
3,237
3,270
4,631
1,361
41.6
    Germany
7,141
7,444
7,399
7,494
8,305
811
10.8
    Japan
10,743
10,957
10,464
10,715
11,155
440
4.1
    Switzerland
2,651
3,040
2,970
2,737
2,852
116
4.2
    United Kingdom
6,835
6,841
8,252
7,429
6,679
-750
-10.1
    Belgium
13,053
14,646
15,507
13,263
11,228
-2,035
-15.3
    South Korea
6,920
7,215
6,686
6,384
6,916
532
8.3
    All other
86,271
83,741
79,583
75,604
77,920
2,317
3.1
        Total domestic exports
218,333
221,376
213,300
203,457
211,862
8,405
4.1
Foreign exports
13,089
13,644
14,376
14,632
15,408
776
5.3
Total U.S. exports (domestic and foreign)
231,422
235,020
227,676
218,089
227,270
9,181
4.2
U.S. general imports:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Canada
33,299
33,518
32,211
29,680
29,449
-231
-0.8
    China
29,466
31,892
30,995
29,810
33,581
3,771
12.7
    Mexico
9,652
10,657
10,759
10,608
11,534
926
8.7
    Ireland
22,384
24,380
28,731
32,307
34,613
2,306
7.1
    Germany
21,856
25,186
24,858
23,302
23,114
-188
-0.8
    Japan
12,660
12,644
11,710
11,505
11,965
460
4.0
    Switzerland
10,978
12,107
11,938
14,328
16,617
2,290
16.0
    United Kingdom
8,665
9,411
13,960
11,338
9,364
-1,973
-17.4
    Belgium
5,001
6,344
6,247
4,916
3,902
-1,013
-20.6
    South Korea
5,030
5,858
6,225
8,511
7,544
-966
-11.4
    All other
77,687
79,531
82,659
83,542
86,428
2,886
3.5
        Total general imports
236,678
251,529
260,293
259,846
268,112
8,266
3.2

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on customs value; export values are based on free along ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations based on unrounded data. The countries shown are those with the largest total U.S. trade (U.S. general imports plus U.S. domestic exports) in these products in the current year.

U.S. Exports[9]

U.S export values increased in many subsectors, especially those directly related to the petrochemicals industry, such as petroleum-derived products.[10] There was also a notable increase in U.S. exports of chlor-alkali chemicals (chemicals produced via the chlor-alkali process). Overall, the largest increases by value occurred in certain organic chemicals and chlor-alkali chemicals (table CH.2).[11]

Table CH.2: Chemicals and related products: Leading changes in U.S. exports and imports, 2013–17

 
Million $
 
Item
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Absolute change,
2016–17
Percent
change,
2016–17
U.S. domestic exports:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Increases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Certain organic chemicals (CH006)
19,690
18,987
16,370
15,020
17,566
2,545
16.9
        Chlor-alkali chemicals (CH009)
2,347
2,267
2,257
2,369
3,116
748
31.6
        Polypropylene resins in primary forms (CH026)
3,183
3,168
2,593
2,529
2,876
347
13.7
        Major primary olefins (CH001)
660
415
531
704
912
208
29.6
    Decreases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Medicinal chemicals (CH019)
48,464
50,326
53,990
51,969
50,647
-1,322
-2.5
    All other
143,989
146,212
137,559
130,866
136,745
5,879
4.5
        Total
218,333
221,376
213,300
203,457
211,862
8,405
4.1
U.S. general imports:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Increases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Miscellaneous plastic products (CH033)
29,259
31,199
32,343
33,029
35,839
2,809
8.5
        Miscellaneous inorganic chemicals (CH007)
9,288
9,842
9,379
8,166
9,316
1,150
14.1
        Pesticide products and formulations (CH017)
3,641
3,799
3,547
3,396
3,860
464
13.7
        Natural rubber (CH036)
2,559
1,955
1,499
1,308
1,768
460
35.2
    Decreases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Medicinal chemicals (CH019)
85,436
93,436
109,759
113,175
112,083
-1,091
-1.0
    All other
106,495
111,298
103,766
100,772
105,246
4,474
4.4
        Total
236,678
251,529
260,293
259,846
268,112
8,266
3.2

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on customs value; export values are based on free along ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations based on unrounded data.

Growth in the value of U.S. domestic exports is largely due to the strength of the plastics and petrochemicals industries and their respective value chains.[12] Product pricing in these sectors is closely tied to the value of crude petroleum,[13] as well as general supply and demand. This means that the slight increase in the price of crude petroleum in 2016, following 10-year lows,[14] had a part in the increased trade values displayed across many of the plastic and petrochemical 
sectors.[15]

Growth in other petrochemical-related industries reflects U.S. chemical manufacturers’ sustained access to cheap oil and gas and focus towards investment and growth as petrochemical producers.[16] In U.S. manufacturing, there has been increased interest in producing chemicals like olefins[17] and aromatics directly from crude petroleum (see figure CH.2).[18] Although some of this reinvestment in the domestic industry is in the early stages, exports of primary olefins (up $208 million, 29.6 percent), and of subsequent downstream products, increased in 2017.

The production of olefins, which are important precursors to plastic resins, increased due to vertical integration.  Increased exports of polypropylene resins in primary forms (up $347 million, 13.7 percent) and other plastics in primary forms (up $737 million, 5 percent) reflect availability of olefin feedstock. Polypropylene is one of the most commonly produced plastics in the world,[19] and it can be used in a variety of applications including piping systems, reusable plastic containers, and clear bags. Again, the availability of shale gas has allowed North American producers to benefit from continued cheap feedstock while increasing U.S. capacity for polypropylene production, making the United States a dominant exporter of polypropylene (see figure CH.2).[20] 

Growth in U.S. domestic exports of saturated polyester resins offset decreased exports of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) resin (see figure CH.2). PET resin is another widely used plastic, especially for the manufacture of downstream products such as food containers, water bottles, and other forms of plastic packaging. Increases in U.S. domestic exports across many of the thermoplastics primary resin sectors reflected an increase in both the value and quantity of exported materials.

As noted above, the chlor-alkali industry led the increase in U.S. exports of chemicals with export growth of $748 million (31.6 percent) in 2017.[21] “Chlor-alkali” refers to the electrolysis process that manufactures both chlorine and caustic soda[22] as coproducts.[23] Both products are important feedstock in varying sectors worldwide. U.S. liquid caustic soda prices experienced steep price increases during 2017, spurred by tight supply and structural changes in global production capacity and trade flows.[24] According to industry analysts, the jump in U.S. exports of chlor-alkali chemicals in 2017 reflects two factors: (1) the implementation in late 2017 of European prohibitions against alternative mercury cell production methods,[25] and (2) reduced exports of caustic soda by China, which produces and consumes half the global caustic supply.[26]  In the United States, industry production increased by only 2.3 percent from 2016 to 2017.[27] Since the European regulations have taken effect, the European Union (EU) has become a net importer of caustic soda. Consequently, the U.S. has now begun picking up the supply slack for both China and Europe, as prices continue to climb upwards. The United States exports approximately 25 percent of its overall production of caustic soda.[28]

The largest decrease in U.S. domestic exports occurred in medicinal chemicals (down $1.3 billion, 2.5 percent). A significant drop in U.S. exports of antisera, other blood fractions, and immunological products to Belgium (down $454 million)[29] contributed to the overall decline in medicinal chemical exports and is largely attributable to decreases in exports of vaccines for human medicine.[30] Traditionally, the largest export markets for medicinal chemicals include Belgium, the Netherlands, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Japan. Projecting forward, the Office of the U.S. Department of Commerce reported that the increasing use of low-cost manufacturing bases for foreign-derived sales may inhibit the export potential of U.S. manufacturers, and the expiration of patents for high-value export products will place downward pressure on values.[31] Despite these pressures, the Department of Commerce reports that high research and development levels may result in new and approved products, specifically in therapeutic markets. Along with the United States' increasing penetration into emerging markets, this could help drive export growth in the long term.[32]

U.S. Imports

The value of U.S. imports of chemicals and related products increased by $8.3 billion (3.2 percent) in 2017, driven by increases in imports of miscellaneous plastic products (up $2.8 billion, 8.5 percent), miscellaneous inorganic chemicals (up $1.2 billion, 14.1 percent), other plastics in primary forms (up $838 million, 14.2 percent), and natural rubber (up $460 million, 35.2 percent).  Medicinal chemicals drove decreases.

The largest decrease in domestic imports was in medicinal chemicals during 2016–17. In 2016 there were fewer U.S. approvals of new molecular entities compared to other years,[33] and as a result there was reduced import demand in 2017 for specific chemical feedstock or finished products because fewer new molecular entities were being brought to market.[34] The pharmaceutical industry also confronted patent expirations, which can affect sourcing decisions and trade flows as well as the value of an imported or exported product. For example, expiration of the patent for Copaxone,[35] owned by Teva (one of the world’s largest drug manufacturers),[36] contributed to a drop in the value of U.S. domestic imports.[37] Some of the decrease in imports can partially be attributed to an uptick in the usage of free trade zones (FTZs)[38] in the pharmaceuticals industry.[39] For example, general imports under subheading 2933.29.20 in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS)[40] decreased by over $800 million in 2017, and the majority of this loss is attributable to imports from Ireland. The data indicate that U.S. imports for consumption from Ireland for this HTS subheading increased from $93,000 in 2016 to $203,480 in 2017. On the other hand, general imports decreased from $1.04 billion in 2016 to $237 million in 2017, reflecting FTZ use by Ireland in 2016.[41] 

The category “miscellaneous plastic products” covers a multitude of goods, but some of the growth in imports in this category can be attributed to increased imports of vinyl tile floor coverings,[42] which continue to dominate domestic flooring choices due to consumer demand for products that provide “quality, durability, superior performance, lower maintenance, lower lifecycle cost and ease of installation.”[43] Also contributing to the overall increase in imports in this category was an increase in U.S. imports of containers for the conveyance or packing of goods, of plastics.[44] Together, these two import categories accounted for $1 billion of the total increase in U.S. domestic imports.

Increased natural rubber imports in 2017 compared to 2016 reflected increased natural rubber quantities and prices.[45] According to publications that monitor the rubber industry, investors began to purchase more natural rubber in early 2017.[46] The tire industry accounts for 60 percent of natural rubber consumption, and demand from this industry is a major driver of rubber prices.[47] U.S. new car sales decreased over the course of 2017,[48] coinciding with an increase in natural rubber global production.[49] To stabilize the market, the largest producers of natural rubber—Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia—have agreed to reduce their global exports in 2018.[50]

Increases in the value of U.S. imports of miscellaneous inorganic chemicals can be partially explained by noticeable increases in the value of imports of certain organic salts, such as copper sulfate (CuSO4),[51] which rose $32 million (39 percent).[52] Copper sulfate is used in agriculture applications, specifically fungicides, herbicides, and pesticides, and as an additive to animal feed to naturally stimulate appetites in cattle, poultry, and pigs.[53] Chemical elements and chemical compounds doped[54] for use in electronics[55] experienced an increase in imports of $124 million (9 percent).[56] Based on trade data, most of this increase was not due to an increase in quantity driven by higher demand, but rather to an increase in unit price.[57]

The situation was somewhat different for domestic imports of crop protection products and formulations (up 13.7 percent). Industry restructuring, coupled with an increase in consumer demand, contributed to a $464 million increase in imports of these goods.[58] Demand for herbicides, in particular, benefited from the increased use of preemergence soil applications, mixing and matching of established active ingredients, new technologies, and multiple modes of action.[59]  Strong demand in all crop protection segments (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides) contributed to record sales in 2017.  Coinciding with growth in this sector, there has been restructuring of the world’s largest suppliers of chemical crop protection products, the result of a series of mergers and acquisitions in the industry.[60] The restructuring has introduced consumer uncertainty about where to supply crop protection inputs, affecting sourcing decision and trade flows.[61] 

 


[1] U.S. domestic chemical production fell by 1.4 percent in September 2017, due to the effects of Hurricane Harvey. ICIS, “US September Chemical Production Fell 1.4%,” October 24, 2017.

[2] Feedstock refers to raw materials for processing or manufacturing.

[3] American Chemistry Council, “Outlook: U.S. Manufacturing Turns a Corner,” December 8, 2017.

[4] Wood, “Evaluating Risk in Resin Pricing Is Important,” August 30, 2017; Caplinger, “What Crude Oil’s Price History Can Teach,” July 3, 2017.

[5] Grand View Research, “Electronics and Consumer Goods Plastics Market,” May 2017.

[6] Patent cliffs occur when a company’s revenue decreases because an established product’s patent has reached its expiration date, allowing competitors to sell that product.

[7] Deloitte, “2017 Global Life Sciences Outlook,” 2017.

[8] “Peak sales per asset” is defined as the amount of money a drug is expected to generate annually. Deloitte, “Balancing the R&D Equation,” 2016.

[9] As appropriate, this section will address total exports, domestic exports, and re-exports.

[10] These petroleum-derived products include certain organic chemicals, organic commodity chemicals, and miscellaneous plastic products, as well as other plastics in primary forms, polypropylene resins in primary forms, major primary olefins, and styrene polymers in primary forms.

[11] Diversified and commodity chemical producers reported a healthy fourth quarter (2017), particularly for polyethylene and caustic soda. Chemical Week, “Commodity, Diversified Earnings Show Strong PE,” February 2018.

[12] Tullo, “The Petrochemicals Party Shows No Signs of Stopping,” April 16, 2018.

[13] Moretti, “Chemicals Price Forecasting,” June 27, 2016.

[14] Caplinger, “What Crude Oil’s Price History Can Teach,” July 3, 2017.

[15] The recovery of crude oil prices and strong demand for cheap feedstock derived from shale in 2017 contributed to growth in exports of propylene (up $121 million); this increase was largely driven by price and not quantity. IHS Markit, Global Trade Atlas database (HS subheading 2901.22.00, accessed April 26, 2018); USITC DataWeb/USDOC (HTS subheading 2901.22.00; accessed May 4, 2018).

[16] Paraskova, “U.S. Shale Just Triggered a Chemical Industry Renaissance,” July 3, 2017.

[17] Primary olefins include propylene (propene), ethylene (ethene), butylene (butene, C-4) and butadiene. All four are important feedstock in U.S. manufacturing endeavors, especially as precursors in thermoplastics production. Thermoplastics are plastics that become soft when heated and have a hard finish when cooled.  There is a wide range of thermoplastic formulas developed for various end uses. Kristoff, “What Is a Thermoplastic Polymer?” March 13, 2018.

[18]  U.S. manufacturers have been increasing integration of petrochemicals and refineries (a change from traditional practice) in order to maximize value. Jenkins, “Refinery Responsiveness Front and Center,” May 2018; Paraskova, “U.S. Shale Just Triggered a Chemical Industry Renaissance,” July 3, 2017; Coons, “Refinery Catalysts,” March 5, 2018.

[19] Creative Mechanisms, “Everything You Need to Know about Polypropylene,” 2016.

[20] Decreases in imports of polypropylene resins in primary forms occurred together with increasing reliance on U.S.-produced polypropylene in 2017. Domestic imports of polypropylene usually supply only 5 percent of the market. ICIS, “OUTLOOK ‘18: US PP Buyers Hoping,” December 22, 2017.

[21] Also known as the caustic soda industry.

[22] Caustic soda can also be referred to as “sodium hydroxide” or “caustic.”

[23] IHS Markit, “Chlorine-Sodium Hydroxide (Chlor-Alkali),” February 2018.

[24] ICIS, “OUTLOOK ’18: US Caustic Soda,” January 3, 2018.

[25] Approximately 4 percent of global production still uses the mercury cell method, but these plants are required to phase out this technology by 2025. Only one producer is left in Europe, and it will end operations by the end of 2018. IHS Markit, “Chlorine-Sodium Hydroxide (Chlor-Alkali),” February 2018.

[26] China has slowly reduced exports due to increased domestic demand coupled with lower operating rates due to anti-pollution initiatives. ICIS, “China Chemical Closures Send Ripples,” January 11, 2018.

[27] IHS, “Chlorine-Sodium Hydroxide (Chlor-Alkali),” February 2018.

[28] ICIS, “OUTLOOK ’18: US Caustic Soda,” January 3, 2018.

[29] IHS Markit, Global Trade Atlas database (HS subheading 3002.20, accessed April 26, 2018); USITC DataWeb/ USDOC (HTS subheading 3002.20; accessed May 4, 2018).

[30] Exports of vaccines for humans to Belgium peaked in 2015 ($1.3 billion) due to regional shortages of combined vaccines for primary immunization and boosters series.  The shortages stemmed from reduced capacities for producing the acellular pertussis antigen, which is used in several vaccine formulations. IHS Markit, Global Trade Atlas database (HS subheading 3002.20, accessed April 26, 2018); USITC DataWeb/USDOC (HTS subheading 3002.20, accessed May 4, 2018); ECDC, RRA, “Shortage of Acellular Pertussis-Containing Vaccines,” October 8, 2015.

[31] USDOC, ITA, Trade.gov, 2016 Top Markets Report: Pharmaceuticals, May 2016.

[32] USDOC, ITA, Trade.gov, 2016 Top Markets Report: Pharmaceuticals, May 2016.

[33] In 2016 the FDA approved 22 new molecular entities; in 2015, 45; in 2014, 41. Van Arnum, “Pharma Industry Outlook in 2018,” January 10, 2018.

[34] Van Arnum, “Pharma Industry Outlook in 2018,” January 10, 2018.

[35] Used in the United States to treat multiple sclerosis and reduce the frequency of relapses.

[36] In 2011, one in six prescriptions in the United States was a Teva drug; Segal and Kershner, “Nobody Thought It Would Come,” December 27, 2017.

[37] HTS subheading 3004.90.10. The expiration of this patent also had a ripple effect.  Copaxone was the only patent owned by Teva, and, and with expiration of the patent, Teva lost $20 billion in market capitalization in 2017; by the end of the year they had cut one-quarter of their worldwide workforce and began to close manufacturing plants. Segal and Kershner, “Nobody Thought It Would Come,” December 27, 2017; Mullin, “Turmoil in Generics Brings Opportunity,” April 23, 2018.

[38] USITC, “Special Topic: Trade Metrics,” September 2014.

[39] Nesbitt, "Changes in the U.S. Pharmaceutical Import Mix," August 2017.

[40] Aromatic or modified aromatic drugs of heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom(s) only containing an unfused imidazole ring.

[41] HTS subheading 2933.29.20, comparing the years 2016 and 2017 for Ireland. 

[42] The miscellaneous plastics products are reported under digest CH033, shown in table CH.2.  The digest is comprised of multiple HTS subheadings, one of which is subheading 3918.10.10.00 in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS), which is vinyl tile floor coverings.  Vinyl floor coverings drive one of the major shifts within the larger digest.

[43] Moore, “LVT Drives Resilient’s Sharp Growth,” July 27, 2017.

[44] This product is classified under HTS 3923.10.90.  The miscellaneous plastics products are reported under digest CH033, shown in table CH.2.  The digest is comprised of multiple HTS subheadings, one of which is subheading 3923.10.90 in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS), which is articles for the conveyance or packing of goods, of plastics; stoppers, lids, caps and other closures; boxes, cases, crates, and other similar articles; other. Subheading 3923.10.90 drives one of the major shifts within the larger digest.

[45] According DataWeb, HTS 4001.21.00 had a quantity of 109,751,000 kg in 2016 and 117,740,000 kg in 2017 and a price of $1.71/kg in 2016 and $2.34/kg in 2017. HTS 4001.22.00 had a quantity of 779,553,000 kg in 2016 and 792,506,000 kg in 2017 and a price of $1.56/kg in 2016 and $2.04/kg in 2017 (accessed July 17, 2018).

[46] Indonesia Investments, “Commodity Watch Indonesia: Natural Rubber,” July 25, 2017; Michie, “The Volatility of the Rubber Market,” March 2, 2018.

[47] Natural rubber is a substitute feedstock for synthetic rubbers—styrene butadiene and polybutadiene—for use in the production of tires for the automotive industry. Michie, “The Volatility of the Rubber Market,” March 2, 2018.

[48] The decreased sales reflect a modest downward correction in sales of new vehicles (including passenger cars and light-, medium- and heavy-duty trucks) due sales outpacing real GDP growth. Tire Business, “Economists: Light Vehicle Sales Predicted,” July 11, 2017; Michie, “The Volatility of the Rubber Market,” March 2, 2018.

[49] European Rubber Journal, “Natural Rubber Production Up,” January 18, 2018.

[50] Michie, “The Volatility of the Rubber Market,” March 2, 2018.

[51] HTS subheading 2833.25.00.

[52] DataWeb/USDOC (HTS statistical heading 2833.25.0000, accessed May 4, 2018).

[53] Ag Professional, “Ag Grade Copper Sulfate Being Produced in Chile,” July 26, 2013.

[54] A doped material contains impurities that have been intentionally introduced in order to modify its electrical conductivity.

[55] HTS subheading 3818.00.00.

[56] USITC DataWeb/USDOC (HTS subheading 3818.00.00, accessed May 4, 2018).

[57] Unit price in 2016 was $1.79 per kilogram; in 2017, it was $2.11. IHS Markit, Global Trade Atlas database (HS subheading 2833.25.0000, accessed April 26, 2018); USITC DataWeb/USDOC (HTS subheading 2833.25.0000, accessed May 4, 2018).

[58] Digest CH017 includes pesticide products and formulations.

[59] “Mode of action” is the way the active ingredients work to inhibit or eliminate the target pest or organism. Heacox, “Tracking Evidence of Strength,” January 23, 2018.

[60] DeCarlo, “And Then There Were Four?” April 2017.

[61] Pucci, “Post-Patent Crop Protection Report,” December 28, 2017.

 

Bibliography

Ag Professional. “Ag Grade Copper Sulfate Being Produced in Chile,” July 26, 2013. https://www.agprofessional.com/article/ag-grade-copper-sulfate-being-produced-chile.

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