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Canada

Daniel Matthews
(202) 205-5991
Daniel.Matthews@usitc.gov

  To view changing data, hover over or touch the animated graphic below.

Change in 2017 from 2016:

  • U.S. total exports to Canada: increased by $15.7 billion (6 percent) to $282.5 billion
  • U.S. general imports from Canada: increased $22.2 billion (8 percent) to $300.0 billion
  • U.S. trade deficit with Canada: increased by $6.5 billion (59 percent) to $17.5 billion

According to data from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Canada was the world’s 10th-largest economy in 2017. The Canadian economy expanded at a faster rate in 2017 than any other G7 country—its real gross domestic product (GDP) rose by 3 percent.[1] Canada was also the United States’ largest merchandise export market and second-largest merchandise trading partner after China, with bilateral merchandise trade totaling $582.5 billion in 2017.

U.S. Total Exports

U.S. total exports to Canada increased by $15.7 billion (6 percent) to $282.5 billion in 2017. A significant share of this growth came from U.S. exports of motor vehicles, construction and mining equipment, and natural gas. That growth more than offset declining exports of precious metals (unrefined and refined gold) and certain transportation equipment (primarily auto parts).

Table CA.1: Canada: U.S. total exports, general imports, and merchandise trade balance, by major industry/commodity sectors, 2013–17

 
Million $
 

Item

2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Absolute change,
2016–17
Percent
change,
2016–17
U.S. total exports:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Agricultural products
26,568
27,373
26,124
25,884
26,196
312
1.2
    Forest products
11,008
10,788
10,199
9,710
9,890
181
1.9
    Chemicals and related products
40,537
41,283
38,198
36,511
38,342
1,832
5.0
    Energy-related products
25,837
34,040
22,256
17,462
19,664
2,202
12.6
    Textiles and apparel
5,423
5,531
5,205
5,076
5,215
139
2.7
    Footwear
459
497
500
509
498
-11
-2.2
    Minerals and metals
31,002
30,597
26,459
24,907
26,274
1,367
5.5
    Machinery
30,651
32,107
29,164
26,254
27,468
1,214
4.6
    Transportation equipment
77,507
78,094
74,345
73,560
78,092
4,532
6.2
    Electronic products
35,152
35,172
32,447
31,451
32,542
1,092
3.5
    Miscellaneous manufactures
9,432
9,903
8,847
8,454
8,806
352
4.2
    Special provisions
7,179
7,431
7,110
7,020
9,483
2,464
35.1
        Total
300,755
312,817
280,855
266,797
282,472
15,674
5.9
U.S. general imports:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Agricultural products
24,941
26,437
25,286
25,246
26,106
860
3.4
    Forest products
18,088
18,971
18,069
18,704
19,116
412
2.2
    Chemicals and related products
33,299
33,518
32,211
29,680
29,449
-231
-0.8
    Energy-related products
110,230
117,928
70,837
54,755
74,241
19,486
35.6
    Textiles and apparel
2,323
2,303
2,243
2,181
2,231
50
2.3
    Footwear
47
59
73
50
52
2
4.1
    Minerals and metals
32,671
33,324
29,762
28,778
31,585
2,807
9.8
    Machinery
13,592
13,696
12,918
12,164
13,535
1,371
11.3
    Transportation equipment
71,548
74,542
73,911
73,639
71,873
-1,766
-2.4
    Electronic products
9,101
9,114
8,932
8,929
9,342
413
4.6
    Miscellaneous manufactures
4,402
4,528
5,250
5,537
5,250
-287
-5.2
    Special provisions
12,262
14,867
16,738
18,095
17,195
-899
-5.0
        Total
332,504
349,286
296,230
277,756
299,975
22,220
8.0
U.S. merchandise trade balance:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Agricultural products
1,627
935
837
638
90
-548
-85.9
    Forest products
-7,081
-8,183
-7,870
-8,994
-9,225
-231
-2.6
    Chemicals and related products
7,238
7,765
5,987
6,831
8,893
2,063
30.2
    Energy-related products
-84,393
-83,888
-48,581
-37,292
-54,577
-17,285
-46.4
    Textiles and apparel
3,099
3,229
2,961
2,895
2,984
89
3.1
    Footwear
413
439
428
460
446
-13
-2.9
    Minerals and metals
-1,669
-2,726
-3,303
-3,871
-5,311
-1,440
-37.2
    Machinery
17,060
18,411
16,246
14,090
13,933
-157
-1.1
    Transportation equipment
5,958
3,553
434
-79
6,219
6,298
(a)
    Electronic products
26,051
26,058
23,516
22,522
23,201
679
3.0
    Miscellaneous manufactures
5,030
5,376
3,597
2,917
3,556
639
21.9
    Special provisions
-5,083
-7,436
-9,628
-11,075
-7,712
3,363
30.4
        Total
-31,749
-36,469
-15,375
-10,958
-17,504
-6,545
-59.7

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on customs value; export values are based on free along ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations based on unrounded data. Sectors are ordered by the level of processing of the products classified therein.

       a Not meaningful for purposes of comparison.

U.S. exports of motor vehicles to Canada increased by $2.2 billion (8 percent) to $29 billion in 2017 due to declining Canadian production that coincided with rising demand in Canada’s passenger vehicle market. The decline in Canadian vehicle production also resulted in a decrease in demand for U.S. exports of auto parts, which declined $405 million (2 percent) to $18.3 billion in 2017. Canada’s total vehicle production that year fell by 170,867 units (7 percent) to 2.2 million units, with General Motors (GM), Ford, Fiat Chrysler, and Toyota reporting lower production levels at their Canadian operations.[2] Canadian motor vehicle production was also affected by extended seasonal closures and a major labor strike. During the summer of 2017, GM extended previously scheduled shutdowns at its Oshawa assembly plant in order to adjust to lower seasonal demand for motor vehicles,[3] while workers at the company’s Ingersoll plant went on strike for four weeks during the fall of 2017.[4] While Canada’s total vehicle production declined, the country’s demand for motor vehicles rose, with total sales increasing by 90,000 units (5 percent) to a record 2 million units in 2017. Many manufacturers that produce vehicles in the United States, such as Ford and GM—as well as foreign manufacturers with U.S. operations, such as BMW, Honda, Hyundai, and Mercedes-Benz—reported increased sales in the Canadian market.[5]

U.S. exports of construction and mining equipment to Canada increased by $1.2 billion (30 percent) to $5 billion in 2017. The increase stemmed from a combination of factors, including new mining, energy, and forestry projects, as well as a rise in infrastructure spending. Canada ranks among the top global producers of major minerals and metals[6] and is a major export market for U.S. mining equipment manufacturers.[7] In 2017, 126 new energy-related, forestry, and mining projects were announced throughout the country, while production started at an additional 50 projects.[8] For example, rising energy prices and the development of new technologies such as autonomous hauling systems (self-driving dump trucks) likely led to new investments in heavy equipment by energy producers operating in Alberta’s oil sands.[9] New and projected infrastructure spending by the Canadian government may have led to an increase in U.S. exports of construction equipment to Canada in 2017.[10]

The increase in demand for construction equipment likely dates to 2016, when the Canadian government announced a series of measures, including the creation of the Canada Infrastructure Bank (CIB) and large increases in public infrastructure spending. The government created the CIB to attract private-sector financing for revenue-generating infrastructure projects throughout the country, including in the country’s remote mining regions.[11] The CIB is expected to spend at least $27.4 billion (C$35 billion) on infrastructure investments over a decade, while the Canadian government has allocated $141 billion (C$180 billion)[12] for public infrastructure projects over the next 12 years.[13]

Rising prices were a major contributor to a $1 billion (49 percent) increase in U.S. exports of natural gas and components to Canada—in 2017, the average annual export price of U.S. natural gas rose 27 percent to $3.54 per thousand cubic feet from the previous year.[14] In terms of volume, U.S. exports to Canada also grew in 2017, rising 19 percent to 917,087 million cubic feet.[15] Although Canada and the United States are both major producers of natural gas, the countries share a highly integrated natural gas market due to location of resources and demand centers, as well as the availability of transportation infrastructure.[16] New U.S. production in the Appalachian Basin region (the Marcellus Shale and the Utica Shale) is an increasingly important source of natural gas for markets in eastern Canada, while Canadian production supplies U.S. markets in the northern United States. Pipelines connecting Ontario with Michigan and New York State are now being reversed to transport natural gas from the Appalachian Basin to Ontario.[17]

Lower shipment values for various refined forms of gold and silver led the $764 million decline (down 29 percent to $1.9 billion) in U.S. total exports of precious metals and non-numismatic coins[18] to Canada in 2017. The United States exported less semi-manufactured silver (down by $238 million) and silver grains (down by $109 million) in 2017; Canadian consumption of silver scrap, for example, fell 38 percent to 732 metric tons.[19] U.S. exports of gold grains (down by $165 million) and gold bullion (down by $145 million) were also lower in 2017. Canadian demand for gold weakened (4 percent to 16.7 metric tons)[20] and domestic mined-gold output rose,[21] which partly offset foreign-import sources of gold.

U.S. General Imports

U.S. general imports from Canada increased $22.2 billion (8 percent) to $300 billion in 2017. U.S. imports of energy-related products such as crude petroleum, petroleum products, and natural gas accounted for a significant share of this growth, as did imports of unwrought aluminum (predominantly primary and secondary unwrought aluminum). These combined increases more than offset declining U.S. imports of precious metals and certain medicinal chemicals.

Table CA.2: Canada: Leading changes in U.S. exports and imports, 2013–17

 
Million $
 
Item
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Absolute change,
2016–17
Percent
change,
2016–17
U.S. total exports:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Increases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Transportation equipment:
Motor vehicles (TE009)
27,195
27,972
26,334
26,797
28,980
2,184
8.1
            Construction and mining equipment (TE004)
6,107
5,872
4,813
3,858
5,013
1,154
29.9
        Natural gas and components (EP006)
4,856
5,459
2,791
2,038
3,038
1,000
49.1
    Decreases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Certain motor-vehicle parts (TE010)
19,361
18,799
18,088
18,740
18,335
-405
-2.2
        Unrefined and refined gold (MM020A)
1,214
358
487
627
333
-294
-46.9
    All other
242,022
254,357
228,342
214,738
226,774
12,035
5.6
        Total
300,755
312,817
280,855
266,797
282,472
15,674
5.9
U.S. general imports:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Increases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Energy-related products:
Crude petroleum (EP004)
76,654
83,155
46,982
36,186
50,122
13,936
38.5
                Petroleum products (EP005)
18,398
15,595
11,906
8,171
10,897
2,726
33.4
                Natural gas and components (EP006)
11,536
15,412
8,285
6,892
9,353
2,461
35.7
        Unwrought aluminum (MM037)
4,976
5,327
5,147
4,722
6,055
1,333
28.2
    Decreases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Motor vehicles (TE009)
45,228
45,096
44,773
47,711
45,993
-1,718
-3.6
        Precious metals and non-numismatic coins (MM020)
7,252
5,899
5,364
5,871
4,347
-1,524
-26.0
        Medicinal chemicals (CH019)
3,921
4,673
5,574
5,258
4,130
-1,128
-21.4
    All other
164,540
174,128
168,199
162,944
169,079
6,135
3.8
        Total
332,504
349,286
296,230
277,756
299,975
22,220
8.0

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on customs value; export values are based on free along ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations based on unrounded data.

The value of U.S. imports of crude petroleum from Canada increased $13.9 billion (39 percent) to $50.1 billion in 2017, due primarily to rising prices. During 2016–17, the standard benchmark for global crude prices increased from an average of $44 per barrel to $54.[22] In the same period, U.S. imports of crude petroleum from Canada increased from 1.18 billion barrels to 1.25 billion barrels.[23] Although U.S. production of crude petroleum has risen with the development of new technologies such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, U.S. imports from Canada have also grown due to differences in the types of crude oil extracted from major sources. For example, most crude oil imports from Canada are of a heavier-grade quality from bitumen deposits in Alberta and are not easily substituted in refineries by new U.S. light oil production in North Dakota and Texas.[24] Specifically, many U.S. refineries in the Midwest and Gulf Coast regions are optimized to refine heavy crude that is imported from Canada, Venezuela, Mexico, and other sources.[25] Canada has also benefited from declining production in Venezuela and Mexico, whose exports to the United States fell in 2017.[26]

The trend for U.S. crude petroleum imports from Canada was largely reflected in the trend for U.S. imports of petroleum products from Canada. The latter grew $2.7 billion (33 percent) to $10.9 billion in 2017, due to rising energy prices and, to a lesser extent, rising volumes.[27]

U.S. general imports of natural gas and components from Canada increased $2.5 billion (36 percent) to $9.4 billion in 2017. In part, the increase in import value was due to rising prices. According to data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the average annual import price for Canadian pipeline natural gas rose 17 percent to $2.55 per thousand cubic feet in 2017.[28] However, there was a rise in import volumes as well. Although U.S. natural gas production has been rising, pipeline locations and constraints—such as a lack of pipeline infrastructure in certain U.S. regions—make Canadian natural gas more competitive in price in certain northern U.S. markets.[29]

The value of U.S. general imports of unwrought aluminum (predominantly primary and secondary) increased by $1.3 billion (28 percent) to $6.1 billion in 2017. In terms of quantity, U.S. imports of unwrought aluminum from Canada rose 7 percent to 2.5 million metric tons. Rising demand from end users in the automotive and construction industries and rising aluminum prices drove the increase in imports. In 2017, U.S. demand for aluminum totaled 12.3 million metric tons, continuing an eight-year trend of consistent growth.[30] At the same time, U.S. primary unwrought production declined 10 percent in quantity from the previous year, although production capacity increased over 8 percent from 2016 to 2017.[31] Canadian producers’ low energy costs[32] relative to other major global producers, comparatively modern smelting technology, and proximity to markets in the United States are the major factors driving the increase in sales of Canadian primary unwrought aluminum production.[33]

Two key factors added to the rising value of imports. First, global prices for primary unwrought aluminum, as measured by the London Metal Exchange (LME), rose 23 percent between 2016 and 2017. Second, the U.S. Midwest Premium, a regional premium added to LME base price for primary unwrought aluminum, increased 33 percent during the same period.[34]

U.S. general imports of motor vehicles from Canada declined $1.7 billion (4 percent) to $46 billion in 2017. This is attributed both to declining Canadian production and to a decrease in U.S. automotive sales (total motor vehicle sales in the U.S. market), which fell by 320,000 units (2 percent) to 17.23 million units in 2017.[35]

U.S. general imports of precious metals and non-numismatic coins from Canada declined by $1.5 billion (26 percent) to $4.3 billion in 2017. The leading products that contributed to this overall decline were refined gold bullion (down by $1.0 billion) and refined silver bullion (down by $316 million). Demand dropped for these two products due to lower U.S. demand for gold (down 23.7 percent to 162 metric tons)[36] and silver (down 14.4 percent to 5,845 metric tons).[37] U.S. imports of Canadian Maple Leaf gold coins also declined (by $468 million) as U.S. investor attention shifted to the rising equities markets and away from holding physical gold. In fact, U.S. demand for bullion bars and coins recorded the largest decline of any consuming country in 2017 (down 58 percent to 39 metric tons), falling to the lowest level since 2007.[38]

The overall decline of U.S. general imports of precious metals and non-numismatic coins from Canada would have been greater but for the rise in the value of imports of unrefined gold doré (up by $504 million). The Royal Canadian Mint, Canada’s only precious-metals refinery, reported refining lower bullion volumes for the first three quarters of 2017,[39] while U.S. refineries reported increased output for 2017.[40]

U.S. imports of medicinal chemicals from Canada declined $1.1 billion (21 percent) to $4.1 billion in 2017, with much of the decline concentrated in U.S. imports of formulated (dosage-form) products.[41] A combination of factors likely contributed to the decline in the value of imports. One factor was the appreciation of the Canadian dollar.[42] A second was the slowing of U.S. pharmaceutical sales amid a continued decline in the price of generic drugs,[43] while a third was a possible shift in the import product mix from higher-value patented products to lower-cost generic products as the patents on several branded products expired.[44] The value decline was compounded by a decline in the quantity of formulated products, likely the result of declining Canadian production. The drop in Canadian production was due to increased competition from low-cost imports[45] and shifts in the business models and supply chains of the multinational pharmaceutical manufacturers, which may have led to fewer U.S. imports originating from Canada.[46]

U.S. Merchandise Trade Balance

The U.S. trade deficit with Canada increased by $6.6 billion (60 percent) to $17.5 billion in 2017. The most significant trade balance shifts occurred in energy-related products, with the U.S. deficit growing by $6.5 billion (46 percent) in 2017, and in transportation equipment, which moved from a U.S. deficit of $79 million in 2016 to a surplus of $6.2 billion in 2017. Although U.S. exports of natural gas to Canada grew $1 billion in 2017, rising energy prices and an increase in U.S. import volumes of crude petroleum, petroleum products, and natural gas from Canada led to a $17.3 billion increase in the energy-related products deficit. A mix of factors contributed to the development of a trade surplus in transportation equipment, including declining Canadian production of motor vehicles, rising demand in Canada’s passenger vehicle market, and demand for equipment used in mining, energy, and forestry projects throughout Canada.

 

[1] The G7 includes Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. IMF, IMF DataMapper, “Gross Domestic Product,” April 2018.

[2] According to Ward’s Automotive Reports, Canadian production of the GMC Terrain declined 67,656 units (59 percent) to 47,221 units, while production of the Chevrolet Equinox fell by 35,492 (12 percent) to 251,630 units. This was due primarily to GM announcing that it would shift production of the GMC Terrain from its Ingersoll, Ontario, assembly plant to Mexico and phase out production of the Equinox in favor of next-generation models. Production of another high-volume model—the Toyota Corolla—fell by 27,478 units (12 percent) to 210,075 units in 2017 after Toyota announced that it would gradually shift production from Canada to Mexico. WardsAuto, “WardsAuto North America Vehicle Production Summary,” January 22, 2018, 7–8.

[3] Layson, “GM Canada Extends Two Summer Plant Closures,” June 20, 2017.

[4] Butler, “GM CAMI Workers in Ontario Vote for Deal,” October 16, 2017.

[5] Layson, “Canada: A Record 2 Million Sales,” January 3, 2018.

[6] Mining Association of Canada, “Mining Facts,” 2018.

[7] According to the U.S. Department of Commerce (USDOC), Canada’s investments in undeveloped mining projects and its lack of critical infrastructure to access these resources present a large market opportunity for U.S. mining systems and equipment providers. USDOC, ITA, Export.gov, “Canada—Mining and Minerals: Systems and Equipment,” August 14, 2017.

[8] Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, “Natural Resources: Major Projects Planned,” August 2017, 3.

[9] Oil Sands Magazine, “Self-Driving Heavy Haulers,” January 31, 2018; Suncor, “Suncor Energy Implements First Commercial Fleet,” January 30, 2018.

[10] Canadian infrastructure spending was expected to grow 41 percent to $3.52 billion (C$4.5 billion) during 2016–17 over 2015–16 levels, while 2017–18 infrastructure spending is projected to grow 56 percent to $5.5 billion (C$7 billion) over 2016–17 levels. Canadian dollar price was converted to U.S. dollar price using the exchange rate US$1 = C$1.2769. Federal Reserve System, “Canada/U.S. Foreign Exchange Rate,” December 2017.

[11] Canada Infrastructure Bank, “About Us,” 2018.

[12] $15 billion of this investment is designated as funding from the CIB. Canada Infrastructure Bank, “Functions,” 2018.

[13] Infrastructure Canada, “Investing in Canada: $180 + Billion Infrastructure Plan,” April 17, 2018. As of May 2018, the CIB had not confirmed any infrastructure investments. Daily Commercial News, “New Infrastructure Bank CEO,” May 30, 2018.

[14] EIA, “Price of U.S. Natural Gas Exports,” April 30, 2018.

[15] EIA, “Natural Gas—U.S. Natural Gas Exports and Re-Exports by Country,” April 30, 2018.

[16] Natural Resources Canada, “Natural Gas Facts,” January 4, 2018.

[17] Government of Canada, NEB, “2017 Natural Gas Exports and Imports Summary,” February 13, 2018.

[18] Non-numismatic coins—commonly referred to as bullion coins—are held as investment items, rather than for any historic (numismatic) value by coin collectors. Common non-numismatic coins include U.S. Eagle Coins and Canadian Maple Leafs (offered in both gold and silver) issued by the United States Mint and the Royal Canadian Mint, respectively. Provident Metals, “Bullion vs. Numismatic Coins” (accessed July 2, 2018).

[19] Silver Institute, 2018 World Silver Survey, April 2018, 84.

[20] World Gold Council, “Gold Demand Trends Data Tables,” February 6, 2018.

[21] Canadian mines produced slightly more gold in 2017 than in the previous year; production went up by less than 3 metric tons (1.7 percent) to 161 metric tons in 2017. Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, “Annual Statistics of Mineral Production, Gold” (accessed April 23, 2018).

[22] The standard benchmark serves as the global reference point for buyers and sellers of crude oil. Global crude prices are calculated using an unweighted average of daily spot prices. EIA, “Spot Prices” (accessed March 20, 2018).

[23] EIA, “Petroleum and Other Liquids: U.S. Imports by Country of Origin,” March 30, 2018.

[24] Government of Canada, NEB, “Market Snapshot: Canada’s Role,” March 22, 2017.

[25] API, “North American Energy,” 2017.

[26] EIA, “Today in Energy,” May 2, 2018.

[27] EIA, “Petroleum and Other Liquids,” April 30, 2018.

[28] EIA, “Natural Gas,” April 4, 2018.

[29] API, “North American Energy,” 2017.

[30] Aluminum Association, “U.S. Aluminum Industry Continues to Grow,” April 11, 2018.

[31] Aluminum Association, “North American Primary Aluminum Production,” April 10, 2018; Aluminum Association, “Primary Aluminum Production Capacity,” March 20, 2018.

[32] Canadian primary unwrought aluminum producers benefit from an abundance of low-priced hydroelectric power. USITC, Aluminum: Competitive Conditions Affecting the U.S. Industry, June 2017, 205–7. Electricity accounts for 20 to 40 percent of primary unwrought aluminum production costs. Aluminum Association, “Primary Aluminum Production” (accessed August 23, 2018).

[33] USITC, Aluminum: Competitive Conditions Affecting the U.S. Industry, June 2017, 204.

[34] S&P Global Platts, Metals Week Price Notification Monthly Reports, January 2016–December 2017. The U.S. Midwest Premium reflects supply and demand conditions in the U.S. aluminum market. The size of the premium also reflects the cost of logistics (trucking freight and handling charges) various market participants report to Platts. S&P Global Platts, “Platts Aluminum Midwest Premium Explained,” May 24, 2018. 

[35] Carey, “Investors Ignore U.S. Auto Sales Outlook,” January 3, 2018.

[36] World Gold Council, “Gold Demand Trends Data Tables,” February 6, 2018.

[37] Silver Institute, 2018 World Silver Survey, April 2018, 84.

[38] World Gold Council, “Gold Demand Trends Full Year 2017,” February 6, 2018.

[39] Government of Canada, Royal Canadian Mint, “Royal Canadian Mint Reports Third Quarter 2017 Results,” November 24, 2017; “Royal Canadian Mint Reports Second Quarter 2017 Results,” August 18, 2017; and “Royal Canadian Mint Reports First Quarter 2017 Results,” May 17, 2017.

[40] George, “Gold,” January 2018, 70.

[41] This decline in medicinal chemicals was concentrated in U.S. imports under Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) subheading 3004.90.

[42] Ljunggren, “Canada Trade Deficit Shrinks,” September 6, 2017.

[43] IQVIA, Medicine Use and Spending in the United States, April 19, 2018. In 2017, growth in U.S. pharmaceutical sales fell as sales of new patented brands grew by $4.9 billion less than in 2016 and as U.S. sales for generics declined by $5.5 billion.

[44] Preston, “Biotech,” January 5, 2017. The expiration in 2017 of patent protections for 22 major drugs—including several high-profile products such as Cialis and Viagra—may have contributed to this decline, which affected billions of dollars in sales for major multinational firms such as Eli Lilly, Pfizer, and Takeda. The U.S. pharmaceutical industry is generally defined as including all companies operating in the United States, including those with foreign headquarters.

[45] USDOC, ITA, “2016 Top Markets Report: Pharmaceuticals; Canada,” 2016.

[46] Nesbitt, “Changes in the U.S. Pharmaceutical Import Mix,” August 2017. U.S. pharmaceutical firms are multinational and can supply the U.S. market from their U.S. operations and/or their overseas operations, including operations in Canada, largely depending on their business models. For example, companies’ production locations may shift as they optimize global supply chains and rationalize their manufacturing operations; such shifts can determine the country of origin for their exports to the United States.

 

Bibliography

Aluminum Association. “North American Primary Aluminum Production,” April 10, 2018. http://www.aluminum.org/statistical-reports/north-america-primary-aluminum-production-1.

Aluminum Association. “Primary Aluminum Production Capacity,” March 20, 2018. http://www.aluminum.org/statistical-reports/primary-aluminum-production-capacity.

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