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Minerals and Metals

David Guberman
(202) 708-1396
David.Guberman@usitc.gov

  To view changing data, hover over or touch the animated graphic below.

Change in 2017 from 2016:

  • U.S. total minerals and metals exports: increased by $7.8 billion (6 percent) to $136.5 billion
  • U.S. general minerals and metals imports: increased by $17.2 billion (9 percent) to $200.7 billion

U.S. trade in minerals and metals continued to be concentrated among three leading trading partners: Canada, China, and Mexico (table MM.1). In 2017, these three countries together accounted for 42 percent of U.S. general imports of minerals and metals and 37 percent of U.S. total exports. They also accounted for roughly half of the nominal growth in U.S. total exports and in U.S. general imports in 2017. The roles of India and Germany as major trading partners became more prominent in 2017, as U.S. domestic exports to India and Germany increased by 24 percent and 21 percent, respectively, and imports from India and Germany increased by 6 percent and 15 percent, respectively. Conversely, in 2017, general U.S. imports from Switzerland declined by 5 percent, and general U.S. exports to Switzerland dropped by 64 percent.

Table MM.1: Minerals and metals: U.S. exports and general imports, by selected trading partners, 2013–17

 
Million $
 
Item
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Absolute change,
2016–17
Percent
change,
2016–17
U.S. exports of domestic merchandise:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Canada
27,739
27,443
23,717
22,260
23,387
1,127
5.1
    China
11,959
10,440
7,729
6,995
8,757
1,763
25.2
    Mexico
18,794
20,896
20,327
18,312
18,938
627
3.4
    India
2,641
2,314
4,029
3,129
3,872
743
23.8
    Germany
4,043
3,821
3,639
3,418
4,123
706
20.7
    United Kingdom
4,759
6,817
6,715
6,611
7,642
1,031
15.6
    Japan
3,166
3,426
3,147
3,008
3,108
100
3.3
    Switzerland
13,131
7,244
7,725
7,745
7,370
-375
-4.8
    Israel
857
576
955
942
566
-376
-39.9
    South Korea
3,681
3,331
2,881
2,430
2,491
61
2.5
    All other
42,694
35,471
28,804
24,955
27,698
2,744
11.0
        Total domestic exports
133,465
121,780
109,668
99,803
107,954
8,151
8.2
Foreign exports
27,045
31,130
26,000
28,881
28,499
-382
-1.3
Total U.S. exports (domestic and foreign)
160,510
152,910
135,667
128,684
136,452
7,769
6.0
U.S. general imports:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Canada
32,671
33,324
29,762
28,778
31,585
2,807
9.8
    China
27,788
31,039
32,057
30,242
32,958
2,716
9.0
    Mexico
19,278
19,503
18,104
18,099
19,377
1,279
7.1
    India
10,343
11,084
10,858
11,430
12,149
719
6.3
    Germany
7,743
8,203
7,762
6,906
7,974
1,068
15.5
    United Kingdom
3,332
3,835
3,079
2,990
2,976
-15
-0.5
    Japan
7,431
7,401
6,743
6,234
6,348
113
1.8
    Switzerland
1,435
2,051
1,672
4,803
1,688
-3,115
-64.9
    Israel
9,385
9,962
9,001
7,734
7,810
76
1.0
    South Korea
5,550
7,716
6,908
5,309
5,819
509
9.6
    All other
65,486
71,383
63,286
60,996
72,030
11,034
18.1
        Total general imports
190,442
205,500
189,230
183,522
200,714
17,192
9.4

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on customs value; export values are based on free along ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations based on unrounded data. The countries shown are those with the largest total U.S. trade (U.S. general imports plus U.S. domestic exports) in these products in the current year.

Prices for some mineral commodities, including iron, steel, and many base metals, were higher in 2017 than in 2016, contributing to the overall increases in the value of exports and imports. The quantities of materials traded also generally rose due to increased economic activity in the United States and abroad. The increase in the value of U.S. exports coincided with rising mine production in the United States, which grew by an estimated 12 percent in 2017 to $26.3 billion. Principal contributors to the total value of metal mine production in 2017 were gold (38 percent), copper (30 percent), iron ore (12 percent), and zinc (8 percent).[1]

U.S. Exports[2]

U.S. domestic exports of minerals and metals increased in 2017 by $8.2 billion (8 percent) to $108 billion (table MM.2). The largest nominal increases were in exports of unrefined and refined gold, precious metals and non-numismatic coins, steel mill products, ferrous scrap, copper, unwrought aluminum, and zinc ore and concentrates.

Table MM.2: Minerals and metals: Leading changes in U.S. exports and imports, 2013–17

 
Million $
 
Item
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Absolute change,
2016–17
Percent
change,
2016–17
U.S. domestic exports:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Increases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Unrefined and refined gold (MM020A)
31,346
19,976
18,466
15,873
19,032
3,158
19.9
        Steel mill products (MM025)
16,038
15,928
12,816
10,920
12,571
1,652
15.1
        Iron and steel waste and scrap (MM023)
7,579
6,167
4,020
3,552
4,901
1,349
38.0
        Copper and related articles (MM036)
8,231
7,518
6,114
5,488
6,239
751
13.7
        Unwrought aluminum (MM037)
4,190
3,820
3,197
2,477
3,020
543
21.9
        Zinc ores, concentrates, and residues (MM006)
932
1,227
1,066
1,025
1,524
499
48.7
    Decreases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Copper ores and concentrates (MM004)
2,573
3,238
3,083
2,391
1,713
-678
-28.4
        Natural and synthetic gemstones (MM019)
2,357
2,184
3,041
2,921
2,543
-378
-12.9
        Aluminum bars, rods, and profiles (MM038A)
877
856
864
1,049
814
-234
-22.3
        Unrefined and refined copper (MM036A)
493
604
298
501
382
-118
-23.6
    All other
58,848
60,263
56,704
53,607
55,215
1,608
3.0
        Total
133,465
121,780
109,668
99,803
107,954
8,151
8.2
U.S. general imports:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Increases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Pipes and tubes of carbon and alloy steels (MM025L)
8,930
10,139
7,843
4,222
7,545
3,323
78.7
        Primary and secondary aluminum (MM037A)
6,375
7,172
7,202
7,938
10,642
2,704
34.1
        Unrefined and refined copper (MM036A)
5,427
4,222
3,808
3,346
4,932
1,586
47.4
        Aluminum mill products (MM038)
4,574
5,048
5,479
5,213
6,578
1,365
26.2
        Plates, sheets, and strips of carbon and alloy steels (MM025B)
7,926
12,266
10,421
8,434
9,796
1,362
16.1
        Ferroalloys (MM022)
2,475
3,256
2,208
1,794
2,987
1,193
66.5
    Decreases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Unrefined and refined gold (MM020A)
14,153
12,819
10,132
15,197
10,605
-4,591
-30.2
        Natural and synthetic gemstones (MM019)
24,922
26,491
25,375
26,093
25,103
-990
-3.8
        Copper ores and concentrates (MM004)
84
88
74
145
95
-50
-34.4
    All other
115,576
123,999
116,688
111,140
122,431
11,291
10.2
        Total
190,442
205,500
189,230
183,522
200,714
17,192
9.4

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on customs value; export values are based on free along ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations based on unrounded data

Precious Metals

As the price of gold was relatively flat between 2016 and 2017, the growth in the value of U.S. gold exports was driven almost entirely by rising export volumes.[3] Higher U.S. domestic exports of unrefined and refined gold, up by $3.2 billion (19.9 percent) to $19 billion, contributed to the overall $2.7 billion (11.7 percent) rise of domestic exports of precious metals and non-numismatic coins to $25.4 billion in 2017. The United States exported $1.7 billion more refined gold bullion in that year, with the leading increases recorded to Hong Kong (up by $1.1 billion), the United Kingdom (up by $834 million), and China (up by $531 million). Each is a major global center for refining, fabricating, and trading for gold. China, currently the world’s largest gold-consuming country,[4] had to rely more on import sources in 2017 to meet rebounding consumer demand for gold as a source of value and for consumption purposes, and offset weaker domestic mine output.[5] Likewise, the United States exported $1.5 billion more unrefined gold doré,[6] with the leading increases recorded to India (up by $765 million), the world’s second-largest gold-consuming country,[7] and to Switzerland (up by $589 million). Both are also major global refining, fabricating, and trading centers for gold. U.S. mined-gold output was 10.4 percent (23 metric tons) higher in 2017, attributed to increased average ore grades and recoveries at two existing mines and the start-up of two new mines in Nevada and South Carolina. This increase exceeded the 0.8 percent (2 metric tons) expansion in the volume of U.S. primary refinery output.[8]

Steel Mill Products

U.S. domestic exports of steel mill products increased by $1.7 billion (15 percent) to $12.6 billion. The category of steel mill products registering the largest increase was plate, sheet, and strip of carbon and alloy steels (flat products), exports of which increased by $538 million (12 percent) to $5 billion. Canada and Mexico accounted for 91 percent all of the U.S. exports of plates, sheets, and strips of carbon and alloy steels, by value, and the majority of the increase in exports in 2017 was to Mexico. The automotive and construction industries are leading Mexican consumers of plates, sheets, and strips of carbon and alloy steel markets. The Mexican automotive sector grew significantly in 2017, producing 4.1 million cars and light trucks, a 13 percent increase from 2016.[9] Most of the 3.1 million cars and trucks produced in Mexico were exported; the vast majority of these went to the United States, followed by Canada and Germany.[10]

Ferrous Scrap

U.S. domestic exports of iron and steel waste and scrap (ferrous scrap) increased by $1.3 billion (28 percent) to $4.9 billion. The leading destinations for domestic exports of ferrous scrap were Turkey, China, Taiwan, and Mexico. In 2017, domestic exports of ferrous scrap to Turkey rose by $333 million (49 percent) to $1 billion, the largest increase for any U.S. export market. The majority of ferrous scrap exported to Turkey was in the form of heavy melting steel scrap. The increase in the total value of exports reflected a combination of greater volume and higher prices for scrap. The average unit value of heavy melt scrap exported in 2017 was 19 to 20 percent higher than that in 2016. The rise in ferrous scrap exports to Turkey coincides with that country’s increase in production of crude steel by electric arc furnaces, which use scrap as the principal raw material.[11] In 2017, Turkey produced 37.5 million metric tons of steel, 13 percent more than the previous year.[12]

Copper

In 2017, U.S. exports of copper ores and concentrates and of copper and related articles both experienced significant shifts, but in opposite directions. U.S. domestic exports of copper ores and concentrates decreased by $678 million (28.4 percent) because of a $671.5 million (38.9 percent) drop in exports to Mexico. The decline in the volume of U.S. domestic exports of copper ores and concentrates to Mexico of 85,600 metric tons was largely consistent with an overall decrease of 170,000 metric tons in U.S. mine production of copper. In contrast to ores and concentrates, U.S. domestic exports of copper and related articles increased by $751 million (13.7 percent) owing mainly to a $523 million (23.5 percent) increase in exports of copper waste and scrap to $2.7 billion. The value of scrap exports increased mainly because of a $352 million (26 percent) increase in exports to China, driven by a rise in scrap export unit values. The unit values for exports of copper waste and scrap rose by a combined average of 12 percent in 2017 due to higher copper prices and changes in the mix of scrap products that were exported.[13]

In 2017, China accounted for nearly one-half of global copper consumption, frequently for electrical applications and construction (estimated at 23 million metric tons).[14] The increase in exports of copper scrap to China in 2017 was thought by some experts to be partially in anticipation of Chinese restrictions on certain copper scrap imports, which became effective in 2018.[15]

Aluminum: Re-exports of Aluminum Mill Products

U.S. re-exports[16] of aluminum mill products dropped steeply by $968 million (73.6 percent) to $346 million, driven by a $990 million (96.5 percent) decrease in re-exports of aluminum bars, rods, and profiles (extruded products).[17] The majority of the decline in re-exports reflected a return to normal trade patterns following a growth in re-exports of aluminum bars, rods, and profiles to Vietnam in 2016. The U.S. re-exports to Vietnam that year are believed to have been largely of Chinese origin. The Aluminum Extruders Fair Trade Committee (AEFTC) has claimed that Chinese producers attempted to circumvent antidumping and countervailing duties on aluminum extrusions by using Vietnam as a transshipment point to gain access to the U.S. market.[18]

Zinc

U.S. domestic exports of zinc ores and concentrates rose sharply by $499 million (49 percent) to $1.5 billion. Canada was the leading destination for U.S. domestic exports, accounting for 36 percent of total exports in 2017, by value, followed by South Korea, Australia, and Spain. As was the case with many mineral commodities in 2017, the increases reflected both higher prices and greater volume. In 2017 the average London Metal Exchange cash price for zinc was $131.25 per pound, 38 percent more than in 2016. Zinc prices went up due mainly to a lack of mine supply (partially from curtailments and closures during 2015–16) and strong growth in galvanized steel demand.[19] Due to limited U.S. refinery capacity, the vast majority of zinc in ore and concentrates produced domestically was exported.

U.S. exports to Canada rose by $187 million (53 percent) to $544 million, and exports to Australia increased by $92 million (116 percent) to $171 million. A substantial portion of the exports to Canada are from the Red Dog zinc-lead mine in Alaska, the largest zinc mine in the United States, and one of the largest in the world.[20] Teck Resources Ltd., the Canadian owner of the Red Dog mine, operates a zinc metallurgical complex in Trail, British Columbia, that processes some of the zinc concentrates from Red Dog. The increase in U.S. exports of zinc in ore and concentrates to Australia coincided with substantial declines in zinc mine production, owing to closures, in Australia from 2015 to 2017,[21] making it more reliant on imported zinc (from the United States and other countries) during that period.

U.S. Imports

U.S. general imports of minerals and metals increased in 2017 by $17.2 billion (9 percent) to $200.1 billion (table MM.2). The largest nominal increases were in imports of steel mill products, precious metals, unwrought aluminum and aluminum mill products, copper and related products, and ferroalloys.

Steel Mill Products

The value of imports of steel mill products increased by $7.0 billion (31 percent) from $22.2 billion in 2016 to $29.2 billion in 2017. The generally higher price of mineral products contributed to the rise in value, given that the average unit value of imports of steel mill products broadly increased. As an example, the MEPS world price of hot-rolled coil carbon steel was $647 per metric ton in December 2017, about 4 percent more than in February 2017.[22]

Canada, South Korea, Brazil, and Mexico were the leading sources of steel mill products, accounting for 50 percent of total imports by value. In 2017, the quantity of imports of steel mill products rose by 4.7 million metric tons (15 percent) to 34.8 million metric tons. The increase was primarily due to higher demand for pipe and tube products by the U.S. oil and gas industry and by demand for flat steel products for use in the construction and manufacturing industries. According to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), U.S. net shipments by domestic producers of all steel mill products increased by 3.9 million metric tons (5 percent) from 78.5 million metric tons in 2016 to 82.4 million metric tons in 2017.[23]

The production of automobiles and construction (especially nonresidential construction) are traditionally the most important U.S. markets for steel mill products. The total value of construction put in place in the United States grew by 4 percent to $1.2 trillion, composed of an increase of 11 percent in residential construction and a slight decrease in nonresidential construction to $524 billion and $710 billion, respectively.[24] In contrast, gross vehicle production (including all trucks) in the United States totaled 11.2 million units in 2017, down 8 percent from 2016.[25] Apparent consumption of steel mill products increased by 5 percent, from 95 million metric tons to 100 million metric tons.[26]

Imports of steel pipes and tubes jumped by $3.3 billion (79 percent). The increase was primarily due to higher imports of oil-country tubular goods used in the production and development of crude petroleum and natural gas, and of line pipe used for the gathering and transportation of crude petroleum and gas. Imports of casings (hollow steel pipe used to line the inside of drill holes) for oil and gas drilling and other products[27] and pipe for oil and gas drilling[28] increased substantially, especially from South Korea. There were also large increases in imports of oil line pipe over 16 inches in diameter from India.[29] The U.S. petroleum and gas drilling activity increased in 2017 due to the rise in prices of oil and natural gas, resulting in greater demand for steel tubular products. There were 929 rotary drilling rigs in operation in the United States by late 2017, 41 percent more than at the end of 2016.[30]

Precious Metals

Declining U.S. general imports of unrefined and refined gold, which fell by $4.6 billion (30.2 percent) to $10.6 billion, accounted for most of the $5.3 billion (19.3 percent) fall in general imports of precious metals and non-numismatic coins to $22.2 billion in 2017. The United States imported $3.1 billion (43.7 percent) less refined gold bullion in that year, with the leading declines recorded from Switzerland (down by $2.5 billion, 95.5 percent) and Canada (down by $1.1 billion, 37.8 percent).[31] U.S. consumer demand for gold declined by 162 metric tons (23.7 percent) in 2017.[32] This drop was due largely to fewer purchases of gold bars and coins and lower inflows into gold-backed exchange-traded funds, as U.S. investors’ focus shifted away from gold to rising equity markets and stock indices that attained new record highs during the year.[33] Increased domestic mined-gold output (up by 10.4 percent to 245 metric tons) in 2017 also led U.S. precious-metal refineries to import $1.4 billion less of unrefined gold doré. The leading declines were recorded from countries with extensive gold-mining operations: Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia.[34]

Copper

U.S. general imports of copper and related articles increased by $2.5 billion (35.4 percent). An increase of $1.3 billion of copper imports (80 percent) from Chile alone accounted for more than half of general imports for the year. Another sizable increase of $355 million (38 percent) was due to copper imports from Canada. The volume of imports also increased by 148,000 million metric tons from Chile and by 15,600 metric tons from Canada. These increased imports helped offset a 140,000 metric ton decrease in U.S. domestic production of refined copper in 2016–17 as U.S. consumption remained strong (particularly for wire). The value of imports increased partially because cathode prices rose by 27 percent from $2.20 per pound in 2016 to $2.80 per pound in 2017.[35] In 2017, total U.S. refined copper production fell by an estimated 8 percent because of planned smelter maintenance shutdowns and a six-week suspension of operations at one U.S. smelter following a fatal accident (the United States has three active copper smelters, two in Arizona and one in
Nevada).[36]

Aluminum

U.S. general imports of unwrought aluminum rose by $2.9 billion (33 percent) in 2017, with the majority of the increase in imports from Canada (up $1.3 billion) and Russia (up $202.5 million). This trend was largely due to increasing demand from the electrical, construction, and auto industries, declining U.S. primary unwrought aluminum production, and rising prices. In 2017, U.S. demand for aluminum totaled a record 12.3 million metric tons, continuing an eight-year pattern of consistent growth.[37] At the same time, U.S. primary unwrought aluminum production declined 10 percent (in terms of quantity) from the previous year. The rise in U.S. imports from Canada and Russia may be due to the key competitive advantage of Canadian and Russian primary aluminum smelters: producers in both countries have access to low-cost energy due to an abundance of low-priced hydroelectric power.[38] Two other factors also contributed to the rise in import value. One was the fact that global prices for primary unwrought aluminum, as measured by the London Metal Exchange, increased 23 percent between 2016 and 2017. In addition, the Midwest aluminum premium, a regional transaction fee charged for primary aluminum shipped to end users in the United States, rose 33 percent during the same period.[39]

Ferroalloys

U.S. general imports of ferroalloys (iron alloys used in steelmaking) rose by $1.2 billion (67 percent) to $3 billion in 2017. Prices for many of the alloying elements (e.g., chromium, manganese, and nickel) used to produce ferroalloys went up in 2017, contributing to the overall increase in import value. For example, from October 2016 to July 2017, global ferrochromium prices increased by 48 percent for charge grade and by 64 percent for high carbon. This increase was the result of greater demand for stainless steel, particularly in China, and a lack of global chromium inventory.[40] The increase in imports of ferroalloys by volume was also significant but smaller than the increase in value, with general imports increasing 1.8 million metric tons (29 percent) in 2017. The ferroalloys that experienced the largest increases in imports were principally those used to produce stainless and other alloy steels; in 2017, U.S. stainless steel melt shop production increased by 11 percent to 2.75 million metric tons.[41]

 

[1] USGS, Mineral Commodity Summaries—2017, January 2018. 

[2] As appropriate, this section will address total exports, domestic exports, and re-exports.

[3] Price effects were minimal, as the annual average gold price for the daily afternoon trading session on the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA) rose by only $8.79 per troy ounce (0.7 percent) to $1,257.13 per troy ounce for 2017, compared to $1,248.34 per troy ounce for 2016. LBMA, Precious Metals Prices, Gold database (accessed April 24, 2018).

[4] WGC, Gold Demand Trends Data Tables database, February 6, 2018.

[5] Schiff, “Chinese Gold Consumption Surged in 2017,” February 1, 2018. For further details about U.S.-China bilateral trade in precious metals and non-numismatic coins, see the “China” chapter of this report.

[6] Gold doré results from the smelting of mined-gold ores, but must be further refined to remove silver and base metals to yield pure, refined gold.

[7] WGC, Gold Demand Trends Data Tables database, February 6, 2018.

[8] USGS, “Gold,” January 2018, 70–71.

[9] Ward’s Automotive Reports, “WardsAuto North America Vehicle Production Summary,” January 28, 2018.  

[10] Mexico News Daily, “Auto Exports to US Hit Record High in 2017,” January 9, 2018.

[11] Ploumis, “Ferrous Scrap Imports by Turkey Surged,” February 17, 2018. 

[12] Turkish Steel Exporters’ Association, “Turkey’s Export by Industry—2017” (accessed May 7, 2018).

[13] USGS, “Mineral Industry Surveys: Copper,” December 2017.

[14] Hobson, “Metals—Copper Hits Two-Year High,” July 26, 2017.

[15] S&P Global Platts, “China’s Mined Copper Demand to Rise,” December 14, 2017. 

[16] Re-exported aluminum mill products are aluminum products imported to the United States that are then re-exported following some form of reprocessing or further manufacturing.

[17] USITC/USDOC DataWeb (accessed April 24, 2018).

[18] Aluminum Extruders Council, “Aluminum Extruders Council Files,” January 9, 2018.  For more information on aluminum trade flows to and from Vietnam, see USITC, Aluminum: Competitive Conditions Affecting the U.S. Industry, July 2017, 546–53.

[19] World Bank Group, “Commodity Markets Outlook,” April 2018. 

[20] Teck Resources, “About Red Dog Mine” (accessed July 5, 2018).

[21] In 2017, zinc mine production in Australia was 747,000 metric tons, 53 percent less than that in 2015.

[22] MEPS International, “World Carbon Steel Prices” (accessed May 7, 2018).

[23] American Iron and Steel Institute, “December Steel Shipments Down,” February 9, 2018.  

[24] U.S. Census, Annual Value of Construction Put in Place 2008–2017, May 7, 2018. 

[25] Ward’s Automotive Reports, “Wards Auto North America Vehicle Production Summary,” January 28, 2018.  

[26] USGS, “Iron and Steel,” January 2018. 

[27] USITC/USDOC DataWeb (HTS subheading 7306.29; accessed July 5, 2018).

[28] USITC/USDOC DataWeb (HTS subheading 7306.19; accessed July 5, 2018).

[29] USITC/USDOC DataWeb (HTS subheading 7305.11; accessed July 5, 2018).

[30] Baker Hughes, “North America Rotary Rig Count,” May 4, 2018. 

[31] For further details about U.S.-Canada bilateral trade in precious metals and non-numismatic coins, see the “Canada” section of this report.

[32] WGC, Gold Demand Trends Data Tables database, February 6, 2018.

[33] WGC, Gold Demand Trends Full Year 2017, February 6, 2018, 6–7.

[34] For further information, see USGS, “The Mineral Industry of Bolivia (Advanced Release),” July 2017; USGS, “The Mineral Industry of Colombia,” September 2017; USGS, “The Mineral Industry of Peru,” September 2017.

[35] Converted to dollars per metric ton, the copper price was $4,850 per mt in 2016 and $6,173 per mt in 2017; USGS, “Copper,” December 2017.

[36] USGS, “Copper,” December 2017.

[37] Aluminum Association, “U.S. Aluminum Industry Continues to Grow,” April 11, 2018.

[38] USITC, Aluminum: Competitive Conditions Affecting the U.S. Industry, June 2017, 205–7, 361.

[39] S&P Global Platts, Metals Week Price Notification Monthly Reports, December 2017.

[40] USGS, “Chromium,” January 2018.

[41] International Stainless Steel Forum, “Stainless Steel Production,” March 15, 2018.  The United States has limited ferroalloy production capacity and is almost entirely dependent on imports and recycled steel scrap for its ferroalloy supply. The ferroalloy with the largest nominal increase was ferrochromium (used to make stainless and alloy steels), which increased by $407 million (91 percent) to $855 million in 2017. The majority of the increase in imported ferrochromium was from South Africa (the leading ferrochromium producer in the world) and, to a lesser extent, Kazakhstan and Russia.

 

Bibliography

Aluminum Association. “U.S. Aluminum Industry Continues to Grow Amidst Record Demand, Chinese Overcapacity Challenge.” News release, April 11, 2018. http://www.aluminum.org/news/us-aluminum-industry-continues-grow-amidst-record-demand-chinese-overcapacity-challenge.

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