You are here

U.S. Trade by Industry Sector and Selected Trading Partners

Angélica Marrero

PDF iconView PDF Version

  To view changing data, hover over or touch the animated graphic below.

 

  To view changing data, hover over or touch the animated graphic below.

U.S. Exports

In 2018, U.S. total exports and general imports both increased.[1] General imports increased at a higher rate, reaching their highest levels since 2014 (table US.1), while U.S. total exports rose by $117 billion (7.6 percent) to nearly $1.7 trillion from 2017 to 2018. This was the second year in a row of export growth, after two years of declining exports in 2015 and 2016. All 10 major merchandise sectors experienced aggregate increases in U.S. total exports in 2018. Energy-related products showed the largest increase in U.S. total exports in terms of value, mostly due to an increase in export prices, while export volumes experienced a relatively small increase; specifically, the value of U.S. exports of energy-related products rose $51.6 billion (35.7 percent) in 2018. The value of U.S. exports of chemicals and related products, as well as transportation equipment, posted the next-largest gains in 2018, growing by $15.7 billion (7.0 percent) and $12.4 billion (3.8 percent), respectively. Combined, these three sectors accounted for over one-third of the growth in the value of U.S. total exports in 2018 (table US.1). (For more information, see the Energy-related Products, Chemicals and Related Products, and Transportation Equipment chapters.)

Table US.1 U.S. total exports, general imports, and merchandise trade balance, by major industry/commodity sectors, 2014–18

 
Million $
 

Item

2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Absolute change,
2017–18
Percent
change,
2017–18
U.S. total exports:
 

Agricultural products

164,429

146,630

148,626

152,965

154,944

1,979

1.3

Forest products

41,169

39,060

37,700

39,592

40,862

1,270

3.2

Chemicals and related products

235,020

227,669

217,979

227,526

243,436

15,910

7.0

Energy-related products

161,755

110,379

98,489

144,319

195,897

51,578

35.7

Textiles and apparel

23,985

23,300

21,734

22,146

22,712

565

2.6

Footwear

1,456

1,464

1,367

1,432

1,559

127

8.8

Minerals and metals

152,910

135,667

128,680

136,447

146,274

9,827

7.2

Machinery

145,981

138,859

128,183

136,204

143,279

7,075

5.2

Transportation equipment

336,439

327,374

320,006

325,578

337,942

12,364

3.8

Electronic products

267,833

264,121

260,426

268,546

276,896

8,350

3.1

Miscellaneous manufactures

47,636

47,363

47,702

49,081

52,096

3,015

6.1

Special provisions

43,260

41,444

40,131

42,437

48,160

5,723

13.5

Total

1,621,874

1,503,328

1,451,024

1,546,273

1,664,056

117,783

7.6

U.S. general imports:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agricultural products

136,341

136,958

139,132

147,359

156,615

9,256

6.3

Forest products

42,213

42,390

43,115

44,822

48,696

3,874

8.6

Chemicals and related products

251,529

260,444

259,893

268,134

311,213

43,079

16.1

Energy-related products

351,626

194,132

157,784

197,931

236,366

38,435

19.4

Textiles and apparel

121,688

126,535

120,231

121,372

127,663

6,291

5.2

Footwear

26,018

27,650

25,634

25,640

26,567

927

3.6

Minerals and metals

205,500

189,262

183,551

200,580

215,285

14,706

7.3

Machinery

185,529

185,926

179,487

196,320

214,658

18,338

9.3

Transportation equipment

404,024

426,421

418,314

434,862

459,727

24,864

5.7

Electronic products

439,109

449,879

449,861

484,129

506,070

21,942

4.5

Miscellaneous manufactures

114,391

124,791

124,879

130,350

139,036

8,686

6.7

Special provisions

78,388

84,424

85,718

90,462

100,836

10,374

11.5

Total

2,356,356

2,248,811

2,187,600

2,341,963

2,542,733

200,771

8.6

U.S. merchandise trade balance:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agricultural products

28,088

9,672

9,494

5,606

-1,671

-7,277

(a)

Forest products

-1,044

-3,330

-5,414

-5,230

-7,834

-2,604

-49.8

Chemicals and related products

-16,509

-32,775

-41,914

-40,608

-67,776

-27,169

-66.9

Energy-related products

-189,871

-83,753

-59,295

-53,613

-40,470

13,143

24.5

Textiles and apparel

-97,702

-103,235

-98,498

-99,226

-104,952

-5,726

-5.8

Footwear

-24,562

-26,186

-24,267

-24,208

-25,009

-800

-3.3

Minerals and metals

-52,591

-53,596

-54,871

-64,133

-69,012

-4,879

-7.6

Machinery

-39,549

-47,068

-51,305

-60,117

-71,379

-11,263

-18.7

Transportation equipment

-67,584

-99,047

-98,308

-109,284

-121,785

-12,501

-11.4

Electronic products

-171,276

-185,758

-189,435

-215,583

-229,174

-13,591

-6.3

Miscellaneous manufactures

-66,755

-77,427

-77,176

-81,269

-86,940

-5,672

-7.0

Special provisions

-35,128

-42,980

-45,587

-48,026

-52,676

-4,650

-9.7

Total

-734,482

-745,483

-736,577

-795,690

-878,678

-82,988

-10.4

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on U.S. customs value; export values are based on free alongside ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations are based on unrounded data. The industry/commodity sector order shown above reflects the order of commodities in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule. Please refer to Resources: Industry/Commodity Groups
a The size of the change was not meaningful for purposes of comparison.

Figure US.1 Total U.S. exports, general imports and trade balance, 2014–18 (billion $)

Title: Figure US.1 Total U.S. exports, general imports and trade balance, 2014–18 (billion $) - Description: Figure US.1 is a clustered column graph with data for U.S. total exports (shown by a blue column), U.S. general imports (shown by an orange column), and trade balance (shown by a gray column) in billions of dollars for five years from 2014 to 2018. U.S. total exports, general imports, and trade balance decreased slightly from 2014 to 2016 and then increased in 2017 to peak in 2018.

Source: USITC DataWeb/USDOC (accessed March 15, 2019).

Although all sectors experienced growth in the value of their exports, some product groups within the sectors experienced a decline, lessening the overall sectoral gains. For example, exports of transportation equipment saw an increase of $12.4 billion (3.8 percent) in 2018. However, this increase was tempered by a decrease in exports of two product groups within this sector—motor vehicles[2] (down $1.2 billion, or 1.5 percent) and aircraft engines and gas turbines[3] (down $766 million, or 7.7 percent) (table US.2).

U.S. exports of agricultural products experienced the smallest aggregate increase in 2018. Among the agricultural products that saw increases were cereals ($2.4 billion, 13.1 percent),[4] animal feeds ($2.0 billion, 16.7 percent),[5] and cattle and beef ($1.1 billion, 15.2 percent).[6] However, the drop in exports of U.S. oilseeds (down $4.3 billion, or 19.9 percent) partly offset the gains in exports of other agricultural products. (For more information, see the Agricultural Products chapter.)

Table US.2 All merchandise sectors: Leading changes in U.S. exports and imports, 2014–18

 
Million $
 

Item

2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Absolute change,
2017–18
Percent
change,
2017–18
U.S. total exports:
 

Increases:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crude petroleum (EP004)

12,219

8,821

9,380

22,594

47,190

24,597

108.9

Petroleum products (EP005)

119,712

80,734

68,562

85,713

103,847

18,135

21.2

Aircraft, spacecraft, and related equipment (TE013)

124,214

129,414

131,954

129,603

138,034

8,431

6.5

Natural gas and components (EP006)

17,885

12,001

13,895

23,585

29,945

6,360

27.0

Medicinal chemicals (CH019)

54,717

58,466

56,991

55,361

59,288

3,926

7.1

Decreases:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oilseeds (AG032)

24,247

19,175

23,164

21,785

17,448

-4,337

-19.9

Telecommunications equipment (EL002)

38,938

40,834

40,065

38,681

36,598

-2,083

-5.4

Motor vehicles (TE009)

77,763

70,436

69,651

71,440

70,375

-1,065

-1.5

Steel mill products (MM025)

17,069

13,713

11,608

13,502

12,547

-954

-7.1

Aircraft engines and gas turbines (TE001)

10,729

10,991

10,539

9,995

9,229

-766

-7.7

All other

1,124,382

1,058,744

1,015,215

1,074,015

1,139,554

65,539

6.1

Total

1,621,874

1,503,328

1,451,024

1,546,273

1,664,056

117,783

7.6

U.S. general imports:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Increases:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crude petroleum (EP004)

246,969

126,073

101,845

133,193

157,353

24,160

18.1

Medicinal chemicals (CH019)

93,436

109,778

113,195

112,215

136,200

23,985

21.4

Petroleum products (EP005)

79,764

51,513

41,130

48,522

62,742

14,220

29.3

Computers, peripherals, and parts (EL017)

121,512

119,620

112,561

124,073

138,092

14,019

11.3

Certain motor-vehicle parts (TE010)

82,106

86,139

85,865

85,225

91,166

5,941

7.0

Decreases:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Telecommunications equipment (EL002)

98,289

105,055

107,863

116,116

111,973

-4,143

-3.6

Coffee and tea (AG028)

6,954

6,927

6,621

7,215

6,619

-596

-8.3

All other

1,627,326

1,643,707

1,618,520

1,715,405

1,838,588

123,183

7.2

Total

2,356,356

2,248,811

2,187,600

2,341,963

2,542,733

200,771

8.6

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on U.S. customs value; export values are based on free alongside ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations are based on unrounded data.

 

U.S. Imports

 

The value of U.S. general imports increased for the 10 merchandise sectors included in the report, rising a combined $200.8 billion (8.6 percent) to $2.5 trillion from 2017 to 2018. The largest increase in value occurred in the chemicals and related products sector, which gained $43.1 billion (16.1 percent). The medicinal chemicals product group drove the increase in U.S. imports in this sector, gaining $24.0 billion (21.4 percent) and accounting for about 56 percent of the sectoral increase. Energy-related products and transportation equipment experienced the second- and third-largest increase in U.S. general imports, rising $38.4 billion (19.4 percent) and $24.9 billion (5.7 percent), respectively (table US.1). Combined, these three sectors accounted for about 53 percent of the total value increase in U.S. general imports during this period. U.S. imports of footwear increased the least in both absolute and percentage terms, growing $927 million (3.6 percent) from 2017 to 2018. Nonetheless, this increase is far larger than the $6 million increase in footwear imports from 2016 to 2017.[7]

In contrast, some product groups experienced a decline in import values. The largest declines were in U.S. imports of two main product groups: telecommunications equipment, down $4.1 billion (3.6 percent), and coffee and tea, down $596 million (8.3 percent) (table US.2). (For more information, see the Transportation Equipment and Agricultural Products chapters.)

Trade with Major Trading Partners

China, Canada, and Mexico continued to be the top U.S. trading partners in 2018 (figure US.2).[8] China continued to be the main supplier for U.S. imports of merchandise and was the third leading destination for U.S. exports. The largest destination for U.S. exports, however, was the bloc comprising the United States’ North American trading partners, Canada and Mexico. Combined, U.S. exports to these two countries accounted for one-third of all U.S. exports of merchandise in 2018. Japan and Germany ranked fourth and fifth, respectively, both as suppliers for U.S. imports and as destinations for U.S. exports (table US.3).

Figure US.2 Total trade between the United States and its five largest single-country trading partners, 2018 (billion $)

Title: Figure US.2 Total trade between the United States and its five largest single-country trading partners, 2018 (billion $) - Description: Figure US.2 is a stacked column graph with data for U.S. total exports and general imports between the United States and its five largest single-country trading partners in 2018. U.S. total trade (U.S. total exports plus U.S. general imports) was highest with China in 2018, followed by Canada, Mexico, Japan, and Germany. Total U.S. exports are shown in blue at the bottom of each column and U.S. general imports are shown in orange at the top of each column. U.S. total exports were highest to Canada in 2018, while U.S. general imports were highest from China.

Source: USITC DataWeb/USDOC (accessed March 15, 2019).

 

U.S. Exports to Major Trading Partners

While the value of U.S. exports to China decreased by $9.6 billion (7.4 percent) from 2017 to 2018, the value of exports to Canada and Mexico increased over the same period, gaining $16.5 billion (5.8 percent) and $21.7 billion (8.9 percent), respectively. The decrease in U.S. exports to China was driven by a sharp drop in exports of oilseeds,[9] which were $9.1 billion (74 percent) lower than in 2017. [10] (For more information about oilseeds exports to China, see the Agricultural Products and Special Topic chapters.)

The increase in U.S. exports to Canada was led by gains in both the volume and the average price of crude petroleum[11] and petroleum products.[12] In 2018, the leading changes in exports to Mexico were higher value and quantity of U.S. exports of petroleum products[13] and an increase in export values of certain motor-vehicle parts.[14] Exports of U.S. merchandise to other major trading partners such as Japan, Germany, South Korea, and the United Kingdom also experienced gains over the previous year (table US.3).

At the sector level, the increases in U.S. exports were led by three product sectors: energy-related products, transportation equipment, and chemical products. Higher exports of energy-related products in 2018, such as crude petroleum (up $24.6 billion, or 108.9 percent), petroleum products ($18.1 billion, 21.2 percent), and natural gas ($6.4 billion, 27.0 percent), reflected an increase in both the value and the volume of exports.[15] The main markets for U.S. exports of these products were major U.S. trading partners, including Canada and Mexico, as well as markets such as Taiwan and India. Similarly, U.S. exports of transportation equipment—particularly aircraft, spacecraft, and related equipment ($8.4 billion, 6.5 percent)—went mostly to the United Kingdom, China, France, and Germany. The growth in exports of medicinal chemicals ($3.9 billion, 7.1 percent) was mostly due to increases in exports to European countries, particularly Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. (For more information, see the Energy-related Products, Transportation Equipment, and Chemicals and Related Products chapters.)

The increase in overall U.S. exports of merchandise was somewhat offset by a drop in the value of exports in several sectors. In particular, exports of oilseeds dropped $4.3 billion (19.9 percent), driven by a reduction in exports to China (table US.2). U.S. exports of telecommunications equipment decreased $2.1 billion (5.4 percent) due to a decline in exports to France, Hong Kong, and Spain. At the same time, exports of motor vehicles were down $1.1 billion (1.5 percent), resulting from a substantial decrease in exports to China. Further, U.S. exports of steel mill products were $954 million (7.1 percent) lower in 2018 than in 2017, driven by lower exports to Canada and Mexico. Meanwhile, U.S. exports of aircraft engines and gas turbines declined $766 million (7.7 percent), a decrease that was led by lower exports to countries including Saudi Arabia, Hungary, Singapore, and Canada. (For more information, see the Agricultural Products, Electronic Products, Transportation Equipment, and Minerals and Metals chapters.)

 

U.S. Imports from Major Trading Partners

The value of U.S. general imports of merchandise from all major trading partners increased from 2017 to 2018. The three top markets for U.S. exports—China, Canada, and Mexico—were also the top three suppliers of merchandise to the United States. Imports from these three countries saw the largest increases during this period and accounted for about 42 percent of the total increase in the value of U.S. general imports. U.S. imports from China rose the most, gaining $34.0 billion (6.7 percent) in 2018 to reach $539 billion, the highest level in the last five years. The next largest suppliers of merchandise to the United States were Mexico and Canada, accounting for 26 percent of the total imports in 2018. Imports from Mexico rose $32.3 billion (10.3 percent), while imports from Canada grew by $19.2 billion (6.4 percent) in the same period (table US.3).

The increase in U.S. imports from China was led by increases in imports of computers, peripherals, and parts;[16] toys and games;[17] and miscellaneous plastic products.[18] These increases were partially offset by decreases in imports of telecommunications equipment;[19] semiconductors and integrated circuits;[20] blank and prerecorded media;[21] and aluminum mill products.[22] The increase in U.S. general imports from Canada was led by imports of crude petroleum[23] and motor vehicles,[24] which were at their highest levels in the last five years. This increase in U.S. imports from Canada was partially offset by a decrease in imports of motor vehicles,[25] lumber,[26] and precious metals and non-numismatic coins.[27] The growth in U.S. imports from Mexico was largely driven by a combined $18.3 billion increase in imports of computers, peripherals, and parts;[28] crude petroleum;[29] and motor vehicles.[30] These increases in U.S. imports from Mexico were partially offset by a decrease in imports of consumer electronics[31] and motor vehicles.[32]

At the sector level, U.S. imports of merchandise in 2018, like U.S. exports, were concentrated in the energy-related products, chemicals, and transportation equipment sectors (table US.1). Imports of energy-related products—particularly crude petroleum, petroleum products, and natural gas and components—were mostly sourced from Canada and Mexico, as well as from three other key exporters of energy-related products: Saudi Arabia, Russia, and Venezuela. Similarly, the United States’ imports of transportation equipment came mostly from major trading partners that are also large exporters of transportation equipment—Mexico, Japan, Canada, Germany, South Korea, and China. Those six countries together supplied about half of the total U.S. imports within this sector. (For more information, see the Energy-related Products, Transportation Equipment, and Chemicals and Related Products chapters.)

The overall increase in the value of U.S. imports of merchandise was somewhat offset by decreases in imports of telecommunications equipment, which fell $4.1 billion (3.6 percent) in 2018 (table US.2), especially with respect to three Asian trading partners—Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand—as well as from Mexico. In addition, U.S. imports of coffee and tea decreased $596 million (8.3 percent), driven by lower imports of these products from Canada, Vietnam, Colombia, and Brazil. (For more information, see the Electronic Products and Agricultural Products chapters.)

Table US.3 All merchandise sectors: U.S. total exports, general imports, and merchandise trade balance, by selected trading partners and groups, 2014–18

 
Million $
 

Item

2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Absolute change,
2017–18
Percent
change,
2017–18
U.S. total exports:
 

China

123,657

115,873

115,546

129,894

120,341

-9,552

-7.4

Canada

312,817

280,855

266,734

282,265

298,719

16,454

5.8

Mexico

241,007

236,460

230,051

243,314

265,010

21,696

8.9

Japan

66,892

62,388

63,226

67,605

74,967

7,362

10.9

Germany

49,419

49,979

49,432

53,897

57,654

3,757

7.0

South Korea

44,650

43,484

42,313

48,326

56,344

8,018

16.6

United Kingdom

53,913

56,095

55,169

56,258

66,228

9,970

17.7

France

31,289

30,026

31,153

33,596

36,326

2,731

8.1

India

21,499

21,453

21,636

25,689

33,120

7,431

28.9

Italy

16,969

16,212

16,724

18,405

23,153

4,749

25.8

All other

659,762

590,503

559,039

587,025

632,192

45,167

7.7

Total

1,621,874

1,503,328

1,451,024

1,546,273

1,664,056

117,783

7.6

EU-28

276,274

271,911

269,549

283,269

318,619

35,350

12.5

OPEC

83,525

73,243

65,313

59,305

58,897

-408

-0.7

Latin America

424,852

389,039

365,827

393,509

428,792

35,283

9.0

Asia

407,186

385,404

383,361

421,440

446,194

24,754

5.9

Sub-Saharan Africa

25,491

18,005

13,481

14,063

15,843

1,780

12.7

U.S. general imports:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China

468,475

483,202

462,542

505,470

539,503

34,033

6.7

Canada

349,286

296,305

277,782

299,319

318,481

19,162

6.4

Mexico

295,730

296,433

293,924

314,267

346,528

32,260

10.3

Japan

134,505

131,445

132,030

136,481

142,596

6,115

4.5

Germany

124,182

124,888

114,107

117,575

125,904

8,329

7.1

South Korea

69,677

71,775

69,895

71,444

74,291

2,846

4.0

United Kingdom

54,689

58,057

54,271

53,060

60,812

7,752

14.6

France

47,105

47,809

46,718

48,899

52,522

3,623

7.4

India

45,358

44,783

46,028

48,603

54,407

5,805

11.9

Italy

42,378

44,221

45,292

49,918

54,722

4,805

9.6

All other

724,971

649,894

645,011

696,926

772,966

76,040

10.9

Total

2,356,356

2,248,811

2,187,600

2,341,963

2,542,733

200,771

8.6

EU-28

420,609

427,810

416,393

434,633

487,916

53,283

12.3

OPEC

133,423

66,741

58,561

72,193

79,810

7,617

10.6

Latin America

445,985

412,338

401,583

430,267

468,816

38,550

9.0

Asia

914,154

943,728

927,949

993,980

1,061,411

67,431

6.8

Sub-Saharan Africa

26,785

18,849

20,141

24,865

25,078

213

0.9

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on U.S. customs value; export values are based on free alongside ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations are based on unrounded data.

 

U.S. Trade Balance

The U.S. merchandise trade deficit with the rest of the world grew by $83.0 billion (10.4 percent) to $878.7 billion in 2018. This amount of deficit growth surpassed the deficit increase of 2017, reached the highest absolute level of growth, and attained the highest yearly growth from 2014 to 2018 (table US.1). In 2018, the United States experienced a trade deficit in all 10 merchandise sectors included in this report—including agricultural products, which had had a trade surplus during each of the previous four years from 2014 to 2017.

The United States did not experience deficit growth in all merchandise sectors. In fact, the trade deficit in energy-related products continued to fall in 2018, as it had during 2014–17, declining 13.1 billion (24.5 percent) from the previous year. In the remaining sectors, however, the trade deficit widened. In particular, it grew by $27.2 billion (66.9 percent) for chemicals and related products––the largest increase in 2018. The trade deficits for electronic products ($13.6 billion, 6.3 percent) and transportation equipment ($12.5 billion, 11.4 percent) increased by the second- and third-largest dollar amounts, respectively, from 2017 to 2018 (table US.1). In 2018, despite making up about half of the value of total U.S. exports that year, these three sectors combined contributed two-thirds of the total increase in the U.S. trade deficit in 2018.

In 2018, the United States had trade deficits with all of its major trading partners except the United Kingdom, and the trade deficit expanded with six of the United States’ top 10 partners. It increased the most in value with China, expanding by $43.6 billion (11.6 percent). It also increased with Canada and Mexico, rising $2.7 billion (15.9 percent) and $10.6 billion (14.9 percent), respectively. On the other hand, the U.S. trade deficit with Japan, South Korea, and India in 2018 decreased by $1.2 billion (1.8 percent), $5.1 billion (22.4 percent), and $1.6 billion (7.1 percent), respectively.

 

[1] Unless otherwise noted, the export data used in this investigation are for domestic exports. For more information on trade terminology, please refer to USITC, “Special Topic: Trade Metrics,” Shifts in U.S. Merchandise Trade, 2014, 2015, https://www.usitc.gov/research_and_analysis/trade_shifts_2014/trade_metrics.htm.

[2] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest TE009 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[3] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest TE001 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[4] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest AG030 (accessed March 15, 2019). 

[5] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest AG013 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[6] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest AG002 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[7] See the Energy-related Products, Chemicals and Related Products, Transportation Equipment, and Footwear chapters included in this report for more information.

[8] In 2018, China, Canada, and Mexico, combined, accounted for 45 percent of the total U.S. trade. In 2017, these countries accounted for 46 percent of the total U.S. trade. USITC DataWeb/USDOC (accessed March 15, 2019).

[9] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest AG032 (accessed March 15, 2019). For more information, see the Agricultural products chapter in this report.

[10] U.S. exports of soybeans (HTS 1201.90.0095) led the decrease in exports of oilseeds to China.

[11] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EP004 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[12] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EP005 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[13] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EP005 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[14] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest TE010 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[15] IHS Markit, Global Trade Atlas database (HS subheadings 2709, 2010, and 2011, accessed July 30, 2019).

[16] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EL017 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[17] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest MS009 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[18] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest CH033 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[19] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EL002 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[20] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EL015 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[21] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EL004 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[22] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest MM038 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[23] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EP004 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[24] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest TE009 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[25] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest TE009 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[26] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest FP002 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[27] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest MM020 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[28] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EL017 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[29] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EP004 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[30] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest TE009 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[31] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest EL003 (accessed March 15, 2019).

[32] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, digest TE009 (accessed March 15, 2019).