You are here

Transportation Equipment

Mitch Semanik

PDF iconView PDF Version

  To view changing data, hover over or touch the animated graphic below.

Change in 2018 from 2017:

  • U.S. total exports of transportation equipment: Increased by $12.4 billion (3.8 percent) to $337.9 billion
  • U.S. general imports of transportation equipment: Increased by $24.9 billion (5.7 percent) to $459.7 billion

U.S. total exports of transportation equipment totaled $337.9 billion in 2018, up $12.4 billion (3.8 percent) from 2017.[1] Canada, Mexico, and China were the top three destinations for U.S. exports of transportation equipment, accounting for a combined total of $137.5 billion (45 percent of U.S. exports) in 2018 (table TE.1).[2] Increases in exports in 2018, by value, were due primarily to increased exports of aircraft, spacecraft, and related equipment; construction and mining equipment; and internal combustion engines (table TE.2). Meanwhile, U.S. exports of motor vehicles experienced a decline from 2017 to 2018.

U.S. imports of transportation equipment totaled $459.7 billion in 2018, an increase of $24.9 billion (5.7 percent). Mexico, Japan, and Canada were the largest sources for U.S. imports of transportation equipment in 2018, accounting for $270.3 billion (59 percent) of total imports in the sector (table TE.1).[3] Growth in imports, by value, was due primarily to increased imports of motor-vehicle parts; construction and mining equipment; and aircraft engines and gas turbines (table TE.2). Only one product group experienced a decline in imports in 2018––ships, tugs, pleasure boats, and similar vessels. This group includes surface or underwater drilling or production platforms.

Table TE.1 Transportation equipment: U.S. exports and general imports, by selected trading partners, 2014–18

 
Million $
 

Item

2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Absolute change,
2017–18
Percent
change,
2017–18
U.S. total exports:
 

Mexico

 35,398

 36,625

 34,051

  34,578

  36,747

   2,169

6.3

Canada

 69,907

 66,632

 66,075

 70,490

 71,748

   1,258

1.8

Japan

  9,893

  9,819

 10,444

  9,052

  9,186

134

1.5

China

 28,934

 27,964

 26,948

 30,453

 28,999

  -1,454

-4.8

Germany

 13,390

 14,079

 13,658

 14,326

 15,762

   1,435

10.0

United Kingdom

 12,081

 12,897

 13,937

 11,856

 14,745

   2,889

24.4

South Korea

  5,919

  7,554

  8,114

  6,028

  6,165

137

2.3

France

  8,416

  9,300

 10,298

 11,045

 12,791

   1,746

15.8

Italy

  2,822

  3,133

  2,258

  2,542

  3,234

692

27.2

Brazil

  6,984

  6,016

  5,170

  6,677

  6,918

241

3.6

All Other

 112,290

104,049

 98,140

 94,437

 96,939

   2,502

2.6

Total domestic exports

 306,032

 298,069

 289,091

 291,484

 303,233

  11,749

4.0

Foreign exports

 30,407

 29,305

 30,915

 34,094

 34,709

615

1.8

Total U.S. exports (domestic and foreign)

336,439

327,374

 320,006

 325,578

 337,942

  12,364

3.8

U.S. general imports:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexico

  96,659

 104,403

 105,197

 114,193

 126,991

  12,797

11.2

Canada

  74,542

  73,961

  73,657

  71,871

  70,778

  -1,093

-1.5

Japan

  65,209

  66,111

  68,644

  70,605

  72,545

   1,940

2.7

China

  21,554

  23,931

  24,232

  26,344

  30,434

   4,090

15.5

Germany

  46,180

  47,996

  39,884

  38,963

  37,629

  -1,334

-3.4

United Kingdom

  14,106

  14,850

  15,437

  15,840

  18,876

   3,036

19.2

South Korea

  23,960

  27,015

  25,305

  25,300

  24,173

  -1,127

-4.5

France

  13,891

  13,946

  12,642

  13,760

  14,253

493

3.6

Italy

 7,896

 9,131

  8,792

  9,967

  11,244

   1,276

12.8

Brazil

 4,254

  4,781

   5,041

   4,676

  4,524

   -152

-3.3

All other

35,772

  40,297

  39,482

  43,342

  48,281

   4,939

11.4

Total general imports

 404,024

 426,421

 418,314

 434,862

 459,727

  24,864

5.7

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on U.S. customs value; export values are based on free alongside ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations are based on unrounded data. The countries are sorted by those with the largest total U.S. trade (U.S. general imports plus U.S. domestic exports) in these products in the most recent year.

Motor vehicles, certain motor-vehicle parts, and internal combustion piston engines were three of the top four product groups in terms of U.S. exports by value to each of the top destination countries: Canada, Mexico, and China.[4] These product groups represent important export industries, given the United States’ large automotive industry sector, which ranked second, behind China, in global production in 2018.[5] In addition to shared borders, which lower trade costs, the size of automotive trade between United States, Canada, and Mexico largely stems from the North American Free Trade Agreement and its requirement for automobiles to be produced with 62.5 percent North American content to qualify for duty-free treatment.[6] China is the world’s largest automotive producer, making it a primary destination for U.S. exports of certain motor-vehicle parts.[7] Similarly, China is also the world’s largest automotive consumer, making it a primary destination for U.S. exports of motor vehicles.[8]

In 2018, U.S. transportation equipment exports to Canada and Mexico rose $1.3 billion and $2.2 billion (1.8 percent and 6.3 percent), respectively. Increasing exports of aircraft, spacecraft, and related equipment (up $687 million or 10 percent) and motor vehicles (up $424 million or 1 percent) were responsible for the overall growth in transportation equipment exports to Canada. Increasing exports of internal combustion engines (up $1.1 billion or 16 percent) and certain motor-vehicle parts (up $544 million or 4 percent) were responsible for the growth in transportation exports to Mexico. U.S. transportation exports to China decreased $1.5 billion (4.8 percent) in 2018, in part due to declining motor vehicle exports (down $3.6 billion or 35 percent).

The majority of U.S. imports from top U.S. import suppliers in this category—Mexico, Japan, and Canada—consisted of motor vehicles and certain motor-vehicle parts.[9] Imports from Mexico and Canada reflect the interconnected nature of the North American automotive industry. Japan was the world’s third-largest producer of motor vehicles in 2018, and 30 percent of Japanese-branded vehicles purchased in the United States were imported from Japan.[10]

U.S. imports of transportation equipment in 2018 increased from two of these leading countries—Mexico ($12.8 billion or 11.2 percent) and Japan ($1.9 billion or 2.7 percent)—but decreased from Canada (down $1.1 billion or 1.5 percent) (table TE.1). Increasing imports from Mexico of motor vehicles (up $7.0 billion or 12 percent) and certain motor-vehicle parts ($3.0 billion, 8 percent) accounted for more than three-quarters of the total growth in transportation equipment imports in 2018. Imports from Japan of construction and mining equipment (up $800 million, 21 percent) and motor vehicles ($640 million, 2 percent) showed the largest increases in 2018. These two product groups contributed to more than half of the total increase in transportation equipment imports from Japan. Motor vehicles is the only transportation equipment product group for which imports from Canada decreased in 2018. Motor vehicle imports from Canada fell $3.5 billion (8 percent), more than three times the total decrease in transportation equipment imports from Canada. A decline in vehicle production in Canada, which fell 8 percent in 2018, partially explains the decrease in U.S. vehicle imports from Canada.[11]
 

U.S. Exports

The U.S. transportation equipment product groups that experienced the largest gains in exports in 2018, by value, were aircraft, spacecraft, and related equipment ($8.0 billion or 6.9 percent); construction and mining equipment ($2.1 billion or 18.4 percent); and internal combustion engines ($1.4 billion or 7.0 percent) (table TE.2).[12] The product group with the largest decline in exports by value was motor vehicles ($1.2 billion or 1.8 percent). The major factors influencing U.S. exports in 2018 were increased demand for fuel-efficient aircraft, increased infrastructure spending from major trading partners, and higher levels of vehicle production in Mexico, which boosted demand for U.S.-produced vehicle parts.

U.S. exports of aircraft, spacecraft, and related equipment (the largest transportation equipment product group, by value) rose 6.9 percent, from $115.7 billion in 2017 to $123.7 billion in 2018 (table TE.2). This rise follows the 2017 decline in exports ($4.7 billion or 4 percent) and was largely attributed to customer demand for more fuel-efficient aircraft and increasing passenger demand for air travel.[13] Export increases to China (up $2.0 billion or 13 percent), France ($1.7 billion, 17 percent), the United Kingdom ($2.4 billion, 31 percent), and Germany ($1.6 billion, 27 percent)—the United States’ four largest trading partners for this product group—accounted for almost the entirety of the $8.0 billion increase in U.S. exports. Boeing, the United States’ largest manufacturing exporter, saw an increase in the value of its aircraft exports to China (up an estimated $4.1 billion), the United Kingdom (up an estimated $2.8 billion), and France (up an estimated $559 million) between 2017 and 2018, which explains part of the increase in U.S. exports of aircraft, spacecraft, and related equipment to these countries.[14] These countries are also major aircraft manufacturers, making them logical markets for U.S. exports of aircraft parts.[15] For example, U.S. exports of aircraft parts to Germany nearly doubled in 2018, from $207 million to $413 million.[16]

Table TE.2 Transportation equipment: Leading changes in U.S. exports and imports, 2014–18

 
Million $
 

Item

2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Absolute change,
2017–18
Percent
change,
2017–18
U.S. total exports:
 

Increases:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aircraft, spacecraft, and related equipment (TE013)

113,744

118,944

120,491

115,717

123,710

7,993

6.9

Construction and mining equipment (TE004)

20,361

15,392

10,343

11,631

13,766

2,135

18.4

Internal combustion piston engines, other than for aircraft (TE002)

20,226

18,040

16,915

19,659

21,030

1,371

7.0

Decreases:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Motor vehicles (TE009)

73,703

67,362

66,651

68,495

67,271

-1,224

-1.8

All other

77,998

78,331

74,692

75,982

77,456

1,474

1.9

Total

306,032

298,069

289,091

291,484

303,233

11,749

4.0

U.S. general imports:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Increases:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Certain motor-vehicle parts (TE010)

82,106

86,139

85,865

85,225

91,166

5,941

7.0

Construction and mining equipment (TE004)

15,401

14,881

12,655

14,530

18,301

3,770

25.9

Aircraft engines and gas turbines (TE001)

21,680

22,428

21,914

23,629

26,569

2,940

12.4

Decreases:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ships, tugs, pleasure boats, and similar vessels (TE014)

1,561

2,813

2,077

2,577

2,250

-327

-12.7

All other

283,275

300,160

295,803

308,901

321,442

12,540

4.1

Total

404,024

426,421

418,314

434,862

459,727

24,864

5.7

Source: Compiled from official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Note: Import values are based on U.S. customs value; export values are based on free alongside ship value, U.S. port of export. Calculations are based on unrounded data.

U.S. exports of construction and mining equipment experienced the second-largest increase in 2018, attributed to nationally funded infrastructure investment projects abroad and fourth-quarter increases in oil and gas capital expenditures.[17] Exports increased 18.4 percent, from $11.6 billion in 2017 to $13.8 billion in 2018 (table TE.2). Canada was the largest recipient of U.S. construction and mining equipment with $4.0 billion in exports, followed by Mexico ($1.3 billion) and Australia ($1.2 billion). U.S. exports of qualifying construction and mining equipment generally enter Canada, Mexico, and Australia duty free under trade agreements between United States and these countries.[18] Exports to Canada and Mexico increased $414 million (12 percent) and $81 million (7 percent), respectively. Australia saw the largest increase in U.S. construction and mining equipment exports in terms of value (up $517 million or 72 percent).

As noted above, large foreign infrastructure investments appear to have played an important role in increasing U.S. exports in this product group. For example, in 2016 the Canadian government created the Investing in Canada Plan, which is expected to provide over $180 billion in infrastructure funding over the next 12 years.[19] The Canadian government committed to investing over $25.4 billion in infrastructure in 2018,[20] and nonresidential construction projects in Canada experienced increases over the past year, including transportation infrastructure and manufacturing facilities.[21] While Canada produces certain types of construction equipment domestically, it imports most of its construction equipment from the United States and Japan.[22] Mexico and Australia also have multiyear infrastructure investment plans that led to increased U.S. exports of construction and mining equipment to those countries in 2018.[23]

U.S. exports of internal combustion piston engines grew $1.4 billion (7.0 percent) from 2017 to 2018, an increase largely attributed to rising vehicle production in Mexico (table TE.2). Mexico was the largest recipient of U.S. exports for the product group and is responsible for $1.1 billion of the increased exports, as exports to Mexico rose 16 percent, from $6.8 billion in 2017 to $7.9 billion in 2018. Canada is the second-largest recipient of U.S. exports of these products, and, together with Mexico, accounted for two-thirds of all U.S. exports of internal combustion piston engines.[24] Exports to Canada, however, fell in 2018 by $446 million (7 percent). Exports of engines to Mexico likely grew due to its increase in vehicle production in 2018, while decreasing vehicle production in Canada may have depressed U.S. exports of engines to Canada.[25]

U.S. exports of motor vehicles fell $1.2 billion (1.8 percent) from $68.5 billion in 2017 to $67.3 billion in 2018 ––the largest annual decrease in exports by value of any transportation equipment product group (table TE.2). Canada was the largest recipient of U.S. motor vehicles in 2018, accounting for $29.0 billion (43 percent) of U.S. exports, followed by China ($6.6 billion or 10 percent). As exports to Canada increased in 2018, decreasing exports to China were largely responsible for the overall decline in motor vehicle exports. U.S. motor vehicle exports to China dropped $3.6 billion (35 percent) in 2018, nearly three times the total decrease in motor vehicle exports. This decline is due, at least in part, to three factors: a decline in total motor vehicle sales in China during 2018, an increase in sales taxes for automobiles (from 5 percent to 10 percent), and, reportedly, trade actions by the Chinese government.[26] (For more information, see this report’s final chapter—Special Topic: Section 232 and 301 Trade Actions in 2018.)
 

U.S. Imports

U.S. imports of transportation equipment rose $24.9 billion (5.7 percent) in 2018, totaling $459.7 billion (table TE.2). This increase also represented a 50 percent increase over the previous year’s gains ($16.5 billion or 4.0 percent). The transportation equipment product groups with the largest increases in U.S. imports, by value, were certain motor-vehicle parts ($5.9 billion or 7.0 percent), construction and mining equipment ($3.8 billion or 25.9 percent), and aircraft engines and gas turbines ($2.9 billion or 12.4 percent). The only transportation equipment product group to experience a decline in imports in 2018 was ships, tugs, pleasure boats, and similar vessels (down $327 million or 12.7 percent).[27] The major trend influencing transportation equipment imports in 2018 was increased domestic vehicle and aircraft production using foreign parts.

The certain motor-vehicle parts product group experienced the largest import increase of any transportation equipment product group in 2018. U.S. imports of these products increased $5.9 billion (7.0 percent), from $85.2 billion in 2017 to $91.2 billion in 2018 (table TE.2). Mexico was the source of $39.2 billion (43 percent) of these imports in 2018, followed by China ($12.5 billion or 14 percent) and Canada ($10.4 billion or 11 percent). U.S. imports of these goods increased from all three of these countries: those from Mexico increased by $3.0 billion (8 percent); from China, by $1.5 billion (14 percent); and from Canada, by $721 million (7 percent).

The United States produced 124,000 more vehicles in 2018 than in 2017, explaining some of the increase in imports of certain motor-vehicle parts.[28] In addition, sources suggest U.S. section 232 tariffs on steel affected some U.S. automotive parts suppliers in 2018.[29] The tariffs pushed up prices for steel in the U.S. market, which caused some parts suppliers to source certain steel-intensive intermediate parts from other countries.[30] Some U.S. manufacturers were able to import these steel-intensive parts as finished products, avoiding the section 232 tariffs on steel. Furthermore, U.S. manufacturers were also able to source automotive parts from foreign that were, in turn, able to produce these parts with relatively less expensive steel.[31] (For a discussion of trade shifts in the steel industry, see the Minerals and Metals chapter; for more information on tariff actions, see the Section 232 and 301 Trade Actions in 2018 chapter).[32]

U.S. imports of construction and mining equipment increased $3.8 billion (25.9 percent)––the second-highest percentage gain in transportation equipment. These imports grew from $14.5 billion in 2017 to $18.3 billion in 2018 (table TE.2). Japan ($4.7 billion), Germany ($2.4 billion), and China ($2.0 billion) were the three largest sources of U.S. imports of construction and mining equipment, accounting for just under half of all transportation equipment imports in 2018. The United States increased its imports from each of these countries in 2018: imports from Japan rose by $800 million (up 21 percent), while imports from Germany rose by $403 million (20 percent) and those from China by $477 million (32 percent).[33]

The growth in U.S. pipeline projects in 2018, coupled with lower domestic shipments of oil and gas machinery, partially explains why U.S. imports in this product group increased.[34] (For a discussion of trade shifts in the energy sector, see the Energy-related Products chapter.) Additionally, since about 10 percent of the cost of manufacturing construction equipment comes from steel inputs, U.S. construction equipment manufacturers have reportedly faced higher costs in light of section 232 tariffs on steel that resulted in companies raising prices and losing sales.[35]

Aircraft engines and gas turbines experienced the third-largest increase in terms of value for U.S. imports. Imports rose $2.9 billion (12.4 percent) from $23.6 billion in 2017 to $26.6 billion in 2018, attributed mainly to expanded U.S. aircraft production (table TE.2). France (from which imports rose $5.9 billion), Canada ($4.2 billion), the United Kingdom ($2.6 billion), and Germany ($2.5 billion) were the largest sources for U.S. imports of aircraft engines and gas turbines in 2018. Imports from the United Kingdom and Canada increased the most in terms of value, by $862 million (51 percent) and $577 million (16 percent), respectively. Both France and the United Kingdom are home to aircraft engine manufacturers that supply engines to Boeing, the world’s largest aerospace manufacturer. Boeing increased production in 2018 and accounted for a substantial share of the U.S. imports of aircrafts engines and gas turbines.[36]

Ships, tugs, pleasure boats, and similar vessels was the only product group with declining imports in 2018. Imports decreased $327 million (12.7 percent), from $2.6 billion in 2017 to $2.2 billion in 2018. South Korea fell from being the third-largest source of U.S. imports of products in this group in 2017 to the 36th-largest source in 2018. U.S. imports from South Korea declined $322 million, accounting for 98 percent of the overall decline in imports of ships, tugs, pleasure boats, and similar vessels. This decline was attributed to the fact that U.S. imports of South Korean floating or submersible drilling or production platforms[37] fell from $321 million in 2017 to zero in 2018.[38]

 


[1] Unless otherwise noted, the export data used in this investigation are for domestic exports. For more information on trade terminology, please refer to USITC, “Special Topic: Trade Metrics,” Shifts in U.S. Merchandise Trade, 2014, 2015, https://www.usitc.gov/research_and_analysis/trade_shifts_2014/trade_metrics.htm.

[2] In 2018, U.S. exports of transportation equipment to Canada were $71.7 billion (24 percent of all exports), exports to Mexico were $36.7 billion (12.1 percent), and exports to China were $29.0 billion (10 percent).

[3] In 2018, U.S. imports of transportation equipment from Mexico were $126.9 billion (28 percent of all imports), imports from Japan were $73.4 billion (16 percent), and imports from Canada were $70.4 billion (15 percent).

[4] The remaining product group, by value, among the top four categories of U.S. transportation goods exported to Canada, Mexico, and China in 2018 was aircraft, spacecraft, and related equipment.

[5] OICA, “2018 Production Statistics” (accessed May 30, 2019).

[6] Center for Automotive Research, “Meet the New NAFTA,” October 16, 2018.

[7] Nelson and Goon, “Industry Surveys, Automobiles,” April 2019, 4.

[8] Nelson and Goon, “Industry Surveys, Automobiles,” April 2019, 4.

[9] In 2018, motor vehicles and certain motor-vehicle parts accounted for 82 percent of transportation equipment imports from Mexico, 70 percent of imports from Japan, and 75 percent of imports from Canada.

[10] The majority of Japanese-branded vehicles purchased in the United States were U.S.-produced. OICA, “2018 Production Statistics” (accessed May 30, 2019); JAMA, “Japanese Brand Automobile and Motorcycle Trends” (accessed June 27, 2019).

[11] OICA, “2018 Production Statistics” (accessed May 30, 2019); Government of Canada, “Canadian Automotive Industry,” January 1, 2019.

[12] The internal combustion piston engines product group does not include aircraft engines.

[13] Lineberger, “2019 Global Aerospace and Defense Industry Outlook,”2018, 3; Boeing, “Commercial Market Outlook 2019–2038,” 2019, 4.

[14] USITC estimates. Boeing, “Orders and Deliveries” (accessed June 6, 2019); Boeing, “Current Price” (accessed June 6, 2019). Boeing delivered 806 aircraft in 2018, 6 percent more than the 763 delivered in 2017. Boeing, “Boeing Sets New Airplane Delivery Records,” January 8, 2019.

[15] Airbus, the largest European aircraft manufacturer, has manufacturing facilities in Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. China also manufacturers aircraft through its state-owned Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China. Airbus, “Production” (accessed on June 27, 2019).

[16] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, total exports of HTS 8803, covering parts of balloons and dirigibles; gliders, hang gliders and other non-powered aircraft; other aircraft (for example, helicopters, airplanes); and spacecraft (including satellites) and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles (accessed August 22, 2019).

[17] U.S. exports of aircraft, spacecraft, and related equipment surpassed construction and mining equipment exports in terms of their value increase ($8.0 billion versus $2.1 billion). U.S. exports of ships, tugs, pleasure boats, and similar vessels surpassed construction and mining equipment exports in terms of their percentage increase in volume (31 percent versus 18 percent). Capital expenditures from national oil and independent companies increased $61.5 billion in the fourth quarter of 2018. Ati, Brinkman, and Peacock, “OFSE Quarterly: Oil Price Slump Slows Recovery,” March 2019.

[18] The United States, Mexico, and Canada are parties to the North American Free Trade Agreement. The United States and Australia are parties to the United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement.

[19] Government of Canada, “About the Investing in Canada Plan,” May 9, 2019.

[20] USDOC, ITA, Export.gov, “Canada—Architecture and Construction,” December 14, 2018.

[21] Samp, “2018 U.S. and Canadian Construction Performances in Review,” February 7, 2019.

[22] USDOC, ITA, Export.gov, “Canada—Architecture and Construction,” December 14, 2018.

[23] USDOC, ITA, “Infrastructure—Mexico” (accessed June 6, 2019); Government of Australia, “Australian Infrastructure Plan” (accessed June 6, 2019).

[24] In 2017, the majority of U.S. exports of core automotive parts (of which engines account for over half) went to Canada and Mexico. USITC, United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement: Likely Impact, 2019, 72.

[25] OICA, “2017 Production Statistics” (accessed May 30, 2019); OICA, “2018 Production Statistics” (accessed May 30, 2019).

[26] Motor vehicle sales in China fell 2.8 percent in 2018, the first annual decrease in almost three decades. Nelson and Goon, “Industry Surveys, Automobiles,” April 2019, 12.

[27] Declining U.S. imports of floating or submersible drilling or production platforms (HTS 8905.20.00) from South Korea are responsible for 98 percent of this decrease. USITC DataWeb/USDOC, HTS subheading 8905.20.00 (accessed March 13, 2019).

[28] OICA, “2017 Production Statistics” (accessed May 30, 2019); OICA, “2018 Production Statistics” (accessed May 30, 2019). For example, one motor-vehicle part that experienced a large increase in U.S. imports in 2018 was wiring sets (HTS 8544.30.00) from Mexico, which grew $1.1 billion in 2017–18. Mexico produces 70 percent of these wiring sets for vehicles produced in the United States and has continued to increase production capacity for these parts. Furthermore, the unit price of these wiring sets from Mexico increased 5 percent in 2018, explaining some of the value increase in imports. USITC DataWeb/USDOC HS8544.30.00 (accessed on March 13, 2019); Isidore, “Why Mexico Is So Important,” May 31, 2019; Mexico News Daily, “German Manufacturer Opens Its Fifth Plant,” December 1, 2017; IHS Markit, Global Trade Atlas database, unit price of Mexican exports to the United States for HS 8544.30 (accessed on July 18, 2019).

[29] Carey, “Trump Tariffs Force Tough Choices,” January 17, 2019.

[30] Carey, “Trump Tariffs Force Tough Choices,” January 17, 2019; Dwyer, “Auto Parts Manufacturers Are Hurt by Tariffs,” June 13, 2018.

[31] Carey, “Trump Tariffs Force Tough Choices,” January 17, 2019.

[32] Carey, “Trump Tariffs Force Tough Choices,” January 17, 2019.

[33] Each of these countries is home to at least one top 10 construction equipment manufacturer. Komatsu and Hitachi Construction Equipment are based in Japan; Liebherr is based in Germany; and Sany and Zoomlion are based in China. Ayemba, “Top 10 World’s Construction Equipment Manufacturers,” March 19, 2019.

[34] Samp, “2018 U.S. and Canadian Construction Performances in Review,” February 7, 2019; Census, “Manufacturer’s Shipments, Inventories, and Order” (M3 Survey, A33DVS) (accessed July 22, 2019).

[35] Rubenstone, “Equipment Makers Prepare for Tariff Fight,” August 22, 2018; Aeppel, “U.S. Heavy Equipment Makers Feeling Pain from Tariffs,” March 18, 2019.

[36] Boeing uses CFM International Leading Edge Aviation Propulsion (LEAP) engines for its Boeing 737 Max series of aircraft, whose production increased in 2018. CFM International is a joint venture between GE Aviation and Safran Aircraft Engines, which is headquartered in France. GE Aviation and Safran Aircraft Engines share production of the LEAP engines. Rolls-Royce produces aircraft engines used by Boeing, including the Trent 1000 for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, and is headquartered in the United Kingdom. Boeing, “Boeing Sets New Airplane Delivery Records,” January 8, 2019; Safran, “A Technological LEAP Forward” (accessed June 27, 2019); MRO Network, “CFM Confirms Initial LEAP-1A and LEAP-1B Assembly Allocation,” May 13, 2016; Rolls-Royce, “Trent 1000” (accessed on June 27, 2019).

[37] This product group includes floating production storage and offloading units, which allow development of oil and gas reserves in deeper water and can cost over $700 million per unit. Purchases of these goods tend to fluctuate from year to year. USITC DataWeb/USDOC, HS 8905.20.00 (accessed March 13, 2019); FPSO World Fleet, “FPSO Info” (accessed June 28, 2019).

[38] USITC DataWeb/USDOC, imports for consumption of HTS 8905.20.00 (accessed June 4, 2019).

Bibliography – Transportation Equipment

Aeppel, Timothy. “U.S. Heavy Equipment Makers Feeling Pain from Tariffs, Disputes: Report,” March 18, 2019. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trade-heavy/u-s-heavy-equipment-makers-feeling-pain-from-tariffs-disputes-report-idUSKCN1QZ16C.

Airbus. “Production.” https://www.airbus.com/aircraft/how-is-an-aircraft-built/production.html (accessed June 27, 2019).

Ati, Nikhil, Marcel Brinkman, and Ryan Peacock. “OFSE Quarterly: Oil Price Slump Slows Recovery.” McKinsey & Company, March 2019. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/oil-and-gas/our-insights/ofse-quarterly-oil-price-slump-slows-recovery.

Ayemba, Dennis. “Top 10 World’s Construction Equipment Manufacturers.” Construction Review Online, March 19, 2019. https://constructionreviewonline.com/2017/04/topconstruction-equipment-manufacturers/.

Boeing. “Boeing Sets New Airplane Delivery Records, Expands Order Backlog,” January 8, 2019. https://www.boeing.com/company/about-bca/washington/2018-deliveries-strong-finish.page.

Boeing. “Commercial Market Outlook 2019–2038,” 2019. https://www.boeing.com/resources/boeingdotcom/commercial/market/commercial-market-outlook/assets/downloads/cmo-2019-report-final.pdf

Boeing. “Current Price.” https://www.boeing.com/company/about-bca/ (accessed June 6, 2019).

Boeing. “Orders and Deliveries.” User-defined reports. http://www.boeing.com/commercial/#/orders-deliveries (accessed June 6, 2019).

Carey, Nick. “Trump Tariffs Force Tough Choices at U.S. Auto Suppliers.” Reuters, January 17, 2019. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trade-autos/trump-tariffs-force-tough-choices-at-u-s-auto-suppliers-idUSKCN1PB0CB.

Center for Automotive Research. “Meet the New NAFTA,” October 16, 2018. https://www.cargroup.org/meet-the-new-nafta/.

Dwyer, Dustin. “Auto Parts Manufacturers Are Hurt By Tariffs, Rising Metal Prices.” NPR, June 13, 2018. https://www.npr.org/2018/06/13/619479455/auto-parts-manufacturers-are-hurt-by-tariffs-rising-metal-prices.

FPSO World Fleet. “FPSO Info.” http://www.fpso.net/page7.html (accessed June 28, 2019).

Government of Australia. “Australian Infrastructure Plan.” https://www.infrastructureaustralia.gov.au/policy-publications/publications/Australian-Infrastructure-Plan.aspx (accessed June 6, 2019).

Government of Canada. “Canadian Automotive Industry,” January 10, 2019. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/auto-auto.nsf/eng/Home.

Government of Canada. “About the Investing in Canada Plan.” Investment Canada, May 9, 2019. https://www.infrastructure.gc.ca/plan/about-invest-apropos-eng.html.

International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA). “2017 Production Statistics.” http://www.oica.net/category/production-statistics/2017-statistics/ (accessed May 30, 2019).

International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA). “2018 Production Statistics.” http://www.oica.net/category/production-statistics/2018-statistics/ (accessed May 30, 2019).

Isidore, Chris. “Why Mexico Is So Important to the American Auto Industry.” CNN, May 31, 2019. https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/31/business/mexico-tariffs-auto-industry/index.html.

Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA). “Japanese Brand Automobile and Motorcycle Trends in Japan and the U.S.” https://www.jama.org/japanese-brand-automobile-and-motorcycle-trends-in-japan-the-u-s/ (accessed June 27, 2019).

Lineberger, Robin. “2019 Global Aerospace and Defense Industry Outlook.” Deloitte, 2018. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Manufacturing/gx-eri-2019-global-a-and-d-sector-outlook.pdf.

Mexico News Daily. “German Manufacturer Opens Its Fifth Plant,” December 1, 2017. https://mexiconewsdaily.com/news/german-manufacturer-opens-fifth-plant-in-mx/.

MRO Network. “CFM Confirms Initial LEAP-1A and LEAP-1B Assembly Allocation,” May 13, 2016. https://www.mro-network.com/manufacturing-distribution/cfm-confirms-initial-leap-1a-and-leap-1b-assembly-allocation.

Nelson, Garrett, and Xiong Jun Goon. “Industry Surveys: Automobiles.” Center for Financial Research & Analysis, April 2019.

OICA. See International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA).

Rolls-Royce. “Trent 1000.” https://www.rolls-royce.com/products-and-services/civil-aerospace/airlines/trent-1000.aspx#/ (accessed June 27, 2019).

Rubenstone, Jeff. “Equipment Makers Prepare for Tariff Fight.” Engineering News-Record, August 22, 2018. https://www.enr.com/articles/45050-equipment-makers-prepare-for-tariff-fight.

Safran. “A Technological LEAP Forward.” https://www.safran-aircraft-engines.com/commercial-engines/single-aisle-commercial-jets/leap/leap (accessed June 27, 2019).

Samp, Abby. “2018 U.S. and Canadian Construction Performances in Review.” Daily Commercial News, February 7, 2019. https://canada.constructconnect.com/dcn/news/economic/2019/02/2018-u-s-canadian-construction-performances-review.

U.S. Census Bureau. “Manufacturer’s Shipments, Inventories, and Orders.” M3 Survey, A33DVS. https://www.census.gov/manufacturing/m3/index.html (accessed July 22, 2019).

U.S. Department of Commerce (USDOC). International Trade Administration (ITA). Export.gov. “Canada—Architecture and Construction,” December 14, 2018. https://www.export.gov/article?id=Canada-Architecture-Construction-and-Engineering-Services.

U.S. Department of Commerce (USDOC). International Trade Administration. “Infrastructure—Mexico.” https://www.trade.gov/infrastructure/mexico.asp (accessed June 6, 2019).

USITC, “Special Topic: Trade Metrics,” Shifts in U.S. Merchandise Trade, 2014, 2015. https://www.usitc.gov/research_and_analysis/trade_shifts_2014/trade_metrics.htm.

U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC). United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement: Likely Impact on the Economy and Specific Industry Sectors. USITC Publication 4889. Washington, DC: USITC, April 2019. https://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/pub4889.pdf.