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In 2016, U.S. cross-border exports of charges for the use of intellectual property totaled $67.5 billion, while imports totaled $26.9 billion. This yielded a trade surplus of $40.5 billion. Exports increased by 1.8 percent from 2015, while imports increased by 7.4 percent. The EU, Switzerland, and Ireland were the largest markets for U.S. cross-border exports of charges for the use of intellectual property, while Japan, the EU, and Switzerland were the largest suppliers of imports. For more information, see chapter 1 of Recent Trends in U.S. Services Trade: 2017 Annual Report.