Sarah Oliver


Using data on service occupations in U.S. manufacturing sectors in 2016, this paper seeks to highlight the value of in-house services in U.S. manufacturing output, by assessing the relationship between the share of services occupations in a particular sector (services occupation intensity) and typical education and compensation in service occupations. Overall, this paper finds a positive and significant relationship between services intensity and the typical education level of service workers within sectors, and a positive and significant relationship between service intensity and the average compensation of service occupations across sectors. For U.S. manufacturing sectors, these in-house services represented between $8.7 and $17.5 billion in additional services value added in 2016 compared to $56.8 billion for intermediate services inputs in the same year.