Gravity Portal: Dynamic Gravity Dataset


The gravity data describes country characteristics and relationships between two trading partners.  This data covers a total of 285 countries between 1948 and 2016 and contains more than 60 variables describing macroeconomic indicators, geographic characteristics, trade facilitation measures, cultural relationships, and institutional stability measures, In order to accurately reflect the dynamic nature of the globe, the dataset follows the formation and dissolution of countries each year and features extensive time variation in corresponding variables.

Key features of the Dynamic Gravity dataset

  • It is a square dataset, meaning that it has equal number of exporters and importers
  • Data includes:
    • Macroeconomic indicators, such as GDP, population, and capital stocks
    • Geographic characteristics, such as distance, contiguity, and latitude/longitude
    • Trade facilitation measures, such as trade agreements, broken down into FTAs, EIAs, CUs, and PSAs;  services agreements, and international organization membership
    • Cultural relationships, such as common languages and colonial ties
    • Institutional stability measures, such as political stability, hostility, and economic sanctions
  • It covers 285 countries and territories that exist for at least one year during the sample period. The dataset begins in 1948 covering 122 countries and territories and expands to 251 countries and territories by 2016.
  • In addition to the standard country ISO codes, it includes a set of country-identifying codes that precisely track the splitting and merging of countries through time.
  • It includes within-country records, allowing researchers to work with domestic as well as international production, consumption, or trade
  • The construction of all variables is transparent and thoroughly documented

Download the dataset

Data is in comma-separated (csv) format. Each file is approximately 250MB. The first line of each file contains variable names.

1948-1977, 1978-1992, 1993-2004, 2005-2016

Country and year coverage

Recommended citation

Tamara Gurevich and Peter Herman, (2018). The Dynamic Gravity Dataset: 1948-2016. USITC Working Paper 2018-02-A.

Dataset documentation

For description of the dataset and comparison of this dataset to other popular sources of gravity variables, see Tamara Gurevich and Peter Herman, (2018). The Dynamic Gravity Dataset: 1948-2016. USITC Working Paper 2018-02-A.

For technical details regarding each variable, its source data, assumptions, and construction procedures see the technical documentation for the dataset as a pdf or 508-compliant webpage.

Questions about the dataset?

Please review our Frequently Asked Questions and the documentation above. If you have any remaining questions, issues, or concerns about the data, please contact us.